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25 Cards in this Set

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endocrine system
consists of ductless glands which secrete hormones
negative feedback mechanism
effects of hormone reverse the stimulus which ultimately leads to decreased secretion of the hormone

many hormones regulated this way
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
increases amount of water reabsorbed by kidney tubules & decreases urine output

stored in posterior pituitary

secreted due to dehydration and extreme fluid loss
oxytocin
causes contraction of smooth muscle in uterus & mammary glands

stored in posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary gland
secretes: growth hormone - TSH - adrenocorticotropic hormone - prolactin - follicle-stimulating hormone - luteinizing hormone
posterior pituitary gland
stores ADH and oxytocin
growth hormone (GH)
AKA somatotropin

increases cell division in tissues capable of mitosis

increases transport of amino acids into cells & their use in protein synthesis

increases release of fat from adipose tissue & use of fats for energy producion

secretion is regulated by GHRH and GHIH in hypothalamus
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
AKA thyrotropin

stimulates growth of thyroid & secretion of two of its hormones (T4 & T3)

secretion stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from hypothalamus when metabolic rate decreases
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion of cortisol & related hormones from adrenal cortex

stimulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hypothalamus which is produced during physiological stress
prolactin
initiates & maintains milk production by mammary glands

stimulated by prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) & prolactin-inhibiting hormone(PIH)

not secreted until pregnancy is over & levels of estrogen & progesterone have dropped
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
gonadotropic hormone (target organs are ovaries/testes)

secreted in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus

inhibin (from ovaries/testes) decreases FSH secretion
luteinizing hormone (LH)
gonadotropic hormone (target organs are ovaries/testes)

secretion increased by GnRH from hypothalamus

women: causes ovulation

men: stimulates secretion of testosterone
What are the three hormones produced by the thyroid gland?
T4
T3
calcitonin
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
produced by four glands located on the thyroid

increases reabsorption of calcium & phosphate from bones to blood resulting in higher blood clacium level & lower blood phosphate level

secretion of PTH stimulated by hypocalcemia & inhibited by hypercalcemia
adrenal glands
AKA suprarenal

located on top of each kidney

consists of inner adrenal medulla & outer adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
part of adrenal gland

secrete epinephrine & norephinephrine

secretion stimulated by sympathetic impulses from hypothalamus during stress
adrenal cortex
part of adrenal gland

secretes three types of steroid hormones: sex hormones - mineralocorticoids - glucocorticoids
aldosterone
produced in adrenal cortex

most abundant of mineralocorticoids

increases reabsorption of sodium ions & excretion of potassium ions by kidney tubules
cortisol
produced in adrenal cortex

most abundant of glucocorticoids

stimulates liver to change glucose to glycogen - increases conversion of excess amino acides to carbs - increases use of fats for energy - has anti-inflammatory effect by blocking histamine & stablizing lysosomes in cells

stimulus for secretion is ACTH from anterior pituitary gland (brought on by stress)
islets of Langerhands
pancreatic islets

endocrine portions of the pancreas

contain alpha cells (produce glucagon) - beta cells (produce insulin) - delta cells (secrete somatostatin)
glucagon
produced by alpha cells within islet of Langerhans within pancreas

stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose

increases use of fats & excess amino acids for energy production

result is increase in blood glucose level

secretion stimulated by hypoglycemia
affect
emotional tone
exophthalmos
eyes that bulge
stimulationt tests
substance is injected in pt to attempt to stimulate specific gland

used to diagnose endocrine gland disfunction
suppression test
substance is injected into pt that is expected to suppress a hormone's release