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751 Cards in this Set

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What are the tactical priorities in Firefighting
1. Life Safety
2. Incident Stabilzation
3. Property Conseration
5 Characteristics of a Firefighter
1. Integrity (obedience to the unenforceable)
2.Moral Character (Truthfullness and Honesty)
3.Work Ethic (do what needs to be done without being told)
4.Pride (How you look and Behave)
5.Courage
Organizational Principles
Unity Of Comand (only one supervisor)
Span of Control (number of individuals an officer can effectively manage 3-7, 5 optimal)
Division Of Labor(break big job into small jobs)
Discipline (setting limits and enforcing them)
Engine Company
Deploys Hoseline for fire attack
Truck Company
Peforms Forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, utilities control, access to upper levels of structure.
Rescue Squad
Searches for and removes victims from danger, may perform technical recue
HazMat Company
responds to and mitigates Hazardous materials incidents
Brush Company
Extinguishes wildland fires
Special Rescue Company
Responds to and performs technical rescues
Fire Police Personnel
Assist Law enforcement officers with traffic control
Fire Prevention Personnel
Fire Prevention Officer/Inspector (inspects buildings for code compliance)
Fire and Arson Investigator(Determines cause and origin of fire)
Public Fire and Life Safety Educator(makes presentations)
Fire Protection Engineer/Specialist(Checks building plans)
Policy
Guide to Decision Making
Procedure
WRITTEN communication closely related to a policy
Components of ICS
Common Terminology
Modular Organization
Integrated Communications
Unified Command Structure
Consolidated Action Plans
Manageable Span of Control
Predesignated Incident Facilities
Comprehensive Resource Management
ICS - Command Staff
Hint: SLP
Safety Officer
Liaison Officer (Point of contact for government and nongovernment agencies in incident)
Public Information Officer (Interfaces with public or media)
ICS - General Staff
HINT: CFLOPI
Operations Section Chief (activites that r reducing hazard)
Planning Section Chief (disseminates incident information)
Logistics Section Chief (Responsible for all support requirements)
Finance
Information / Intelligence
Assigned
Resource currently committed to an assignment
Available
Resource has checked in at incident and is available for assignment
Branch
Organization level between Divisions/Groups and the IC and Operations. (ie. Fire Branch, EMS Branch, Law enforcemnt Branch)
Command
The function of directing ordering and controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency, or delegated authority.
Division
Geographical designation assigning responsibility for all operations within an area. Assigned clockwise on a wildfire and by floor on multi story fire.
Group
Functional designations (forcible entry, salvage, ventilation, etc)
Incident Action Plan (IAP)
Written or unwritten plan for managing an emergency.
Strike Team
Set number of resources of the same kind
Task Force
Any combination of resources assembled in support of a specific mission
Other Organizations at an Incident
EMS
Hospitals (MCI)
Law Enforcement
Utility Companies
Media
On average the number of firefighters that die in the line of duty each year
100
Fatalities by Duty (Volunteer / Paid)
70% - Volunteer
30% - Paid
Causes of Firefighter Fatalities
54% - Stress or Overexertion
24 % - Other Causes
22% - Traffic Accidents
Consensus Standard
Rules, principles or measures that are established through agreement of members of the standards-setting organization.
Risk Manaagement Plan
Written plan that identifies and analyzes the exposures to hazards and includes selection of appropriate risk management techniques to handle exposures, implementation of chosen techniques, and monitoring the result of those techniques.
NFPA 1500
Relates to Firefighter Saftey and Health
NFPA Topics
Safety and Health related policies and procedures
Training and Education
Fire apparatus, Equipment, and Driver Operators
PPE
Emergency Operations(NIMS, Passports)
Facility Safety
Medical and Physical Requirements
Member Assistance and Wellness Programs
Supplied Air Respirator
An atmosphere providing respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by user
OSHA
Federal OSHA authority and regulations apply mainly to the PRIVATE SECTOR, and do not cover employees of state and local governments, including career and some volunteer programs. Does apply to federaly employed firefighters, prvate sector firefighters.
Industrial Fire Brigade
Team of employees organized within a private company who are assigned to fight fires.
Employee Assistance Program
Available to employee and their families to aid in soling work and personal problems.
Defusing
informal discussion that can happen at the scene or after units have returned to quarters.
Jump Clear of Apparatus
If in contact with energized electrical wires.
Student to Instructor ratio for live fire training
5:1
Size Up Critical Factors
Life Safety Hazard
Nature and Extent of the Emergency
Building Type Arrangement and Access
Resources
Special Hazards
Structure Fire Tactical Priorities
Firefighter Safety
Rescue
Fire Control
Loss Control
Personnel Accountability Report
Report made to the IC signifying that companies working on incident are safe and accounted for
"All Clear"
The primary search has been completed and all salvageable occupants are out of the hazard zone.
"Undr Control"
The fire is controlled with the forward fire progress stopped, no additional units will be required, no dangers to firefighters.
"Loss Stoped"
Propert Conservation is complete
Rapid Intervention Crew
2 or more equipped and available firefighters.
Safety Rule
"Everyone Looks Out for Everyone else"
How many lanes next to MVA should be closed.
At least One
Personnel Accountability Systems
Passport System
SCBA Tag System (time of entry and expected time of exit based on scba pressure)
IDLH
immediately dangerous to life and health safety
List three ways to preventing firefighter injuries?
training
maintaining company discipline/accountability
following SOPs
What are the three IFSTA principles of Risk Management?
Only take on significant risk if a life can be saved
No building is worh a firefighter
Dont go interior if building is derilct or unoccpied
How can you avoid slips trips and falls at fire station?
good housekeeping
good lighting
maintain handrails
What NFPA standard must live fire training exercises meet?
NFPA 1403
What are two basic interior operations techniques?
Scan the outside of bulding to locate egress routes
Wear full PPE including SCBA and use air management plan
Take the appropriate tools with you
Maintain team integrity
Take a hoseline or tagline
Pay attention to your immediate surroundings.
Hand Tool Safety
Wear PPE
Remove loose clothing
remove jewelry
select the right tool for the job
follow manufacturer's instruction
Power Saws
Match the saw to the task
Wear PPE
Keep saws sharp
Mater
anything that occupies space and has mass
Exothermic heat reaction
chemical reaction between two or more materials that changes the materials and produces heat, flames and toxic smoke
Endothermic Heat Reaction
Chemical reaction in which a substance absorbs energy
combustion
exothermic reaction that is self sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel that produces heat and light
fire triangle
Oxygen , Fuel , Heat
Fire Tetrahedron
Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, Self-Sustaining chemical reaction
Potential Energy
Stored Energy possessed by an object
Kinetic Energy
Energy possessed by a moving object
Energy
The capacity to perform work
Measurement For Heat Energy
Joule - International System of Units
BTU - Customary system (raise 1 pound of water 1 degree farenheit)
Autoignition Temperature
Same as ignition temperature except that no external ignition source is required for ignition because the material itself has been heated to the ignition temperature
pyrolysis
the chemical decomposition of a solid fuel through the action of heat
vaporization
in liquid fuels is the releasing of ignitable gases or vapors
piloted ignition
when a mixture of fuel and oxygen encounter an external heat source. Autoingnition temp is always higher than piloted ignition
Sources of Heat Energy
Chemical Heat Energy
Self Heating(spontaneous)
Electrical Heating
Mechanical (friction)
Spontaneous Heating Materials
Charcoal
Linseed Oil-Soaked Rags
Hay and Manure
mechanical heat types
heat of compression
heat of friction
Three types of heat transmission
Conduction (direct contact)
Convection (heat from liquid or gas to a solid surface)
Radiation (electromagnetic waves)
Passive Agents
Materials that absorb heat but do not participate actively in the cobustion process. Fuels with high moisture content
Reducing Agent
The fuel that is being oxidized or burned during combustion.
Vapor Density
Density of gas in relation to air
Air has density of 1
Lighter than air has density < 1
Specific Gravity
ratio of mass of a given volume of a liquid compared with the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temp.
Water has SG of 1
SG < 1 Float
SG > 1 Sink
Flash Point
Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the liquid's surface.
Fire Point
Temperature at which a liquid fuel produces sufficient vapors to support combustion once the fuel is ignited. Usually a few degrees above the flash point.
Solubility
The extent at which a substance will mix with water
Liquids with low flash points
are easily ignited
Miscible
materials that are capable of being mixed
Surface-To-Mass Ratio
Is the primary concern for solid fuels. Fules with a higher stm ratio burn more readily. Log vs. Sawdust
Heat of Combustion
Total amount of energy releases when a specific amount of the fuel is burned
Heat Release Rate
Is the energy released per unit of time as a given fuel burns. Over TIme
An atmosphere that is oxygen deficient
Has less than 19.5% oxygen
Atmosphere is Oxygen enriched when
It has more than 23.5 % Oxygen
Flammable Range
The range between the upper flammable limit and lower flammable limit in which a substance can be ignited. Right mix of gas and O2
Colorless Odorless dangerous gas formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon. It combines 200 times more completely with hemoglobin
Carbon Monoxide
Colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas that nether supports combustion or burns. Used in portable extinguishers to extinguish B or C fires by smothering or displacing oxygen.
Carbon Dioxide
Colorless liquid with a pungent choking odor which is iritating to the mucous membranes.
Acetaldehyde
Reddish Brown gas
Nitrogen Dioxide
Colorless gas with a sharp pungent odor. Mixes with water to form hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen chloride
Colorless gas with a choking or suffocating odor.
Sulfur Dioxide
Colorless liquid with petroleum like odor.
Benzene
Fires that involve cooking oils
Class K
Fires that involve normal combustibles
Class A
Fires that involve flammable liquids
Class B
Saponification
Phenomenon that occurs when mixtures of alkaline based chemicals come into contact with cooking oils creating a soapy film
4 stages of fire development
Incipient (heat hasnt spread to other substances)
Growth
Fully Developed (Flashover can occur)
Decay
Factors influencing the development of a fuel controlled fire
Mass and Surface Area
Chemical Content
Fuel Load
Fuel Moisture
Orientation Continuity
Neutral Plane
The interface between the hot and cooler gas layers at the opening
Rollover
Condition in which the super heated gases released in a confined space during the incipient or early steady-state accumulate at the ceiling level. These gases are pushed away from the fire area into uninvolved areas where they mix with oxygen. Then it burns and rolls over your head.
Flashover Indicators
Hot gases overhead and lowering of hot gas layer.
A strong air in smoke out phenomena.
Isolated Flames traveling in the hot-gas layer. (ghosting)
What temps do flashover commonly occur
900-1200 degrees
Backdraft
Instantaneous explosion or rapid burning of superheated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen depleted space.
Visual Indicagtors of Backdraft
Inwardly drawn smoke
little or no visible flame
puffing smoke leaving building
Black smoke that becomes dense gray or yellow
Pressurized smoke
Smoke stained windows
A fire in a Large Compartment
will develop more slowly than one in a smal compartment
What temp does water convert to steam and how much does it expand
212 degrees and 1700 X
Assembly
2 or more interconnected structural components combined to meet a specific function or design requirement.
Roof trusses, Wall frames, Doors and frames
Balloon Frame
Studs extend from the basement to the roof. This allows fire ro spread undetected through holow walls
Bar Joist
Joist constructed of steel with bars in the vertical web space.Early failure when exposed to fire is likely
Beam
A horizontal structural component subjected to vertical loads.
Bowstring Truss
A roof assembly with a curved or arched top chord. Very strong unless exposed to direct flame.
Butterfly Roof
V shaped roof in which the two sides slope toward a valley in the middle.
Cantilever
A beam that is unsupported at one or both ends. Typically used to support balconies or apartments.
Chipboard/ Oriented Strandboard OSB
Wood board made by gluinf and pressing wooden strands
Chord
The main structural members of a truss as distinguished from diagnols
Cockloft
An open space between the roof and ceiling of a commercial or industrial building.
Attic
Space between roof and ceiling in a residential building
Column
A vertical supporting member. Columns may be wooden or steel posts.
Course
Horizontal lay of masonary units. (row of bricks)
Curtain Wall
Nonload bearing exterior wall used as a weather barrier but not for support. High rises have curtain wals that are sheet glass in frames
Curtain Board
Nonload bearing interior wal extending down from a roof or ceiling to limit the horizontal spread of fire and heat.
Eave
The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall
Cantilever
A beam that is unsupported at one or both ends. Typically used to support balconies or apartments.
Chipboard/ Oriented Strandboard OSB
Wood board made by gluinf and pressing wooden strands
Chord
The main structural members of a truss as distinguished from diagnols
Cockloft
An open space between the roof and ceiling of a commercial or industrial building.
Attic
Space between roof and ceiling in a residential building
Column
A vertical supporting member. Columns may be wooden or steel posts.
Course
Horizontal lay of masonary units. (row of bricks)
Curtain Wall
Nonload bearing exterior wall used as a weather barrier but not for support. High rises have curtain wals that are sheet glass in frames
Curtain Board
Nonload bearing interior wal extending down from a roof or ceiling to limit the horizontal spread of fire and heat.
Eave
The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall
Engineered I Beam
A woden I beam consisting of continuous wooded upper and lower chords seperated by a web of OSB or similar sheet rock
Fire Door
Solid core door, door frame, and hardware. Meant to keep fires to one section of a building
Fire Load
Total potential heat release if a building and its contents burned.
Fire Wall
A rated assembly that extends from the foundation to and through the roof of a building to limit fire spread.
Gable Roof
A pitched roof characterized by quare cut ends or sides that slope down from the ridge line to the eaves.
Gable Wall
A wall rising to meet a gable roof at the end of a building. Found at the ends of gable roofs.
Gambrel Roof
A roof characterized by a single ridge line from which roof sections on both sides of the ridge descend at different pitches. Common on barns
Girder
Horizontal structure meant to support beams or joists
Glue-Lam Beam
A wooden structural member composed of relatively short pieces of lumber glued and laminated together under pressure
Gusset Plate
Wooden or metal plate used to connect structural members that are butted together
Header Course
Course of bricks laid with the ends facing outward
Hip Roof
A pitched roof in which the ends are all beveled so that there are no gable walls.
Interstitial Space
An area between layers of building materials
Joists
Horizontal structural members used to support a ceiling or floor.
Lamella Arch
An arch constructed of short wooden members connected in a specifc geometric pattern. Found in older buildings
Mansard Roof
Steeply sloped facets surrounded by a flat or nearly flat center section.
mortar
a mixture of sand cement and water used to bond masonary unitsinto a solid mass
Open Web Joist
A joist constructed with a web composed of materials such as bars or tubes that do not fill the entire web space
Parallel Chord Truss
A truss contrsucteed with the top and bottom chords parallel the trusses are used in floor joists and in multi story buildings
Parapet
A wall at the edge of some roofs. Most parapet walls range from a few inches to a few feet in height
Party Wall
A wall shared by two adjoining buildings, usually load bearing
Pitch
ratio of rise to span of a rook assembly. The steeper the pitch the greater the trip hazard
Plate
The top or bottom horizintal member of a frame wall. Sole Plate or Top Plate
Platform Construction
Frame type construction in which each floor interrupts the exterior studs forming an effective fire stop at every floor. This is the most common type of construction
Plywood
A wooden structural panel made of glued sheets of wood
Rafters
Beams that span from a ridge board to an exterior wal plate to support roof decking
Rated Assembly
Two or more construction components combinged to form an assembly that has a specific fire resistance rating. Fire Doors, gypsum Drywall
Reinforced Concrete
Concrete that has rebar
Sawtooth Roof
A roof with a saw blade profile, These roofs are common in older industrial buildings.
Sheething
Plywood, OSB, or Wooden Planking that has been applied to a wall or roof over which a weather resistant covering is applied.
Shed Roof
Pitched roof that slopes in only one direction from the ridge.
Spalling
Degradation of concrete to prolonged exposure to high heat
Stud
A vertical structure member in a frame wall.
Tension
Force that tends to pulls the mass of a material apart.
Truss
A wooden or metal structural unit made up of one or more triangles in a flat plane.
Type I Construction
Fire Resistive
Maintains Its Integrity after a fire
Made with Reinforced concrete and structural members have insulation or automatic sprinklers for protection
Type II Construction
NonCombustive Construction
Same as Type I but without the insulation or other protection
Type I Construction Strengths
Resists flame impingement
Confines Fire Well
Little collpase potential
Impervious To Water Damage
Type I Weaknesses
Difficult to Breach
Difficult to Ventilate
Massive debris following a collapse
Floors Ceilings and Walls Retain heat
Type II Construction Strengths
Almost as resistive as Type 1
Confines Fire Well
Easier to vertically ventilate than Type I
Type II Construction Weaknesses
Difficult to Breach
Roof systems less stable than Type I
Steel components can fail
Type III Construction
Ordinary Construction
Exterior walls and structural members be made of noncombustible or limited combustible material
Type III Strengths
Resists fire spread from the outside
Relatively easy to vertically ventilate
Type III Weaknesses
Interior structural members vulnerable to fire involvement
Fire spread potential through concealed spaces
Susceptible to Water damage
Type IV construction
Heavy Timber
Exterioir and Interior walls be made of noncombustible or limited combustible materials
Type IV Strengths
Resists collapse
Structurally stable
Relatively easy to ventilate
Easy to Breach
Manageable debris
Type IV Weaknesses
Susceptible to fire spread from outside
Potential for flame spread to nearby structures
Type V Construction
Wood Frame Construction
construction made completely or partly of wood
Smaller dimansion than haevy timber construction
Type V Strengths
Easy to Breach / Ventilate
Resistant to collapse from earthquakes
smaller collapse debris
Type V Weaknesses
Susceptible to fire spread from outside
Rapid flame spread inside
Total collapse possible
Water damage
What are you looking at when doing a building size-up
Age of building(signs of weathering)
Construction Material (Wood, masonry, Metal, concrete)
Roof Type (Arched or Lightweight)
Renovations or modifications
Dead Loads (HVAC, Water Units on Roof)
Dangerous Building Conditions
Conditions that contribute to the spread and intensity of the fire
Conditions that make buildings susceptible to collapse
Collapse Zone
The area extending horizontally from the base of the wall to one and one half times the height of the wall
Rain Roof
Second roof constructed over an old roof
DRD
Drag Rescue Device
Nylon and Polyester
Never wear these in firefighting ops, they melt. Wear cotton
How high should boots be
8 - 10 inches
Carbon Dioxide
IDLH = 40,000 ppm
Caused By Free Burning
Carbon Monoxide
IDLH = 1200 ppm
CB = Incomplete Combustion
Hydrogen Chloride
Colorless to slightly Yellow
IDLH = 50 ppm
Burning Plastics
Irritated eyes and respiratory tract
Hydrogen Cyanide
Colorless, Bitter Almond Odor
IDLH = 50 ppm
Burning of wool, nylon, polyurethane
Chemical Asphyxiant, hampers respiration at the cellular level
Nitrogen Dioxide
Irritates nose and throat
Phosgene
Colorless; Odor of musty hay
IDLH = 2 ppm
Reduced when refrigerants such as freon contact flame
Forms Hydrochloric Acid in the lungs
Carboxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin saturated with carbon monoxide and therefore unable to absorb needed oxygen
Etiological Agents
Living microorganisms, like germs, that can cause human disease
Point Of No Return
That time at which the remaining operation time of the scba is equal to the time necessary to return safely to a nonhazardous atmosphere.
Open Circuit Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
An CBA that allows the weares exhaled air to be discharged or vented to the atmosphere (Used IN FireFighting)
Harness Assembly
Rigid frame that holds air cylinder
Air Cylinder Assembly
Includes cylider valve, presure guage, and PASS device in some units.
Main weight of breathing apparatus
Regulator Assembly
Includes High Pressure Hose with low pressure alarm, by-pass valve, and pressure redusing device
Facepiece assembly
Includes facepiece len, exhalation valve, low pressure hose.
Low Pressure Alarm
Activates when below 1/4 of air pressure
Open Circuit Airline Equipment
Airline equipment that allows exhaled air to be discharged into the open atmosphere.
Longer Duration HazMat
SARs , No backpack
Closed Circuit Breathing Apparatus
Exhalations are rebreathed after CO2 has been removed. Not approved for firefighting. Chemical O2 restores O2 concentrations
PASS
Personal Alert Safety System or Pull, Aim, Squeze, sweep
How do you check for positive presure in facemask
break the seal between the facepiece and cheek
SCBA NFPA Numbers
1500 & 1404
SCBAs
Clean after each use
Inspect every month
Annual Maintenance
Hydrostatic Testing
A testing method that uses water under pressure to check the integrity of pressure valves
Male Coupling
Side of coupling pointing to EXIT
Female Coupling
Side of coupling pointing to Fire
Tag Line
Nonload bearing rope attached to an object to help steer it in adesired direction or act as a safety line
Types of Fire Extinguishers
Smothering (Oxygen Exclusion)
Cooling (Reducing fuel below its ignition temp)
Chain Breaking (Interrupting the chain reaction)
Saponification (Forming an oxygen-excluding soapy foam)
Pump-Tank Water
Hand Carried/Backpack
Agent=Water
Class A Fires
Stored Presure Water
Class A Fires
Dry Powder
Only Class D Extinguisher
Hand Carried or Wheeled
Halon 1211 and 1301
Used on B & C Fires
Extinguishing Agent
Any substance used for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire
Wet Chemical Extinguisher
Agent = Potassium Acetate
Class K Fires
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
Used on B & C Fires
Dry Chemical Extinguishers
Uses a dry chemical powder as the primary extinguishing agent, often used to protect areas containing volatile flammable liquids
Extinguishing characteristics of water
cooling
Extinguishing characteristics of Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen Depletion
Extinguishing characteristics of Foam
Oxygen Depletion
Extinguishing characteristics of Clean Agent
Chain Inhibition
Extinguishing characteristics of Dry Chemical
Chain Inhibition
Extinguishing characteristics of Wet Chemical
Oxygen Depletion
Extinguishing characteristics of Dry Powder
Oxygen Depletion
Alloy
Substance or mixture composed of 2 or more metals
Dry Powder
Extinguishing Agent suitable for use on combustible metal fires
Wet Chemical System
Extinguishing system that uses a wet-chemical solution as the primary extinguishing agent
Water Mist
atomizing water through a special applicator
Aqueous Flm Forming Foam
Synthetic foam concentrate that, when combined with water, can form a complete vapor barrier over fuel spills and fires and is highly effective extinguishing agent on hydrocarbon fuels.
Clean Agent Extinguishers
Designed to replace Halon 1211
Rapidly evaporating liquid that leaves no residue
_____flurocarbons
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
Limited reach
No freeze protection
Wheeled extinguishers
Are larger
Carbon Dioxide/Dry Chemical
Dry Chemical
Not the same as dry powder
Used for a,b,c fires
2 types regular b/c rated, and multipurpose a,b,c rated
Dry Chemical Extinguishing Agents
Sodium Bicarb
Potassium Bi Card
Potassiumj Chloride
Monoammonium Phosphate
Operating a wheeled extinguisher
Stretch hose out completely
Class A Fire Icon
Class B Fire Icon
Class C Fire Icon
Class C Fire Icon
Class D Fire Icon
Total Flooding System
Fire-Suppression System designed to protect hazards within enclosed structures. Foam is released into a compartment or area and fills it completely to extinguish a fire
Washing Natural Fiber rope
Water initially strengthens then weakens it so can't use water to clean. Have to wipe of as much dirt as possible
Washing Synthetic Fibers
wash by hand
Rope washing device
Front Load Washer
Running End
Rope end used for hoisting, pulling, or belaying
Working End
End used in forming a not also called the bitter end or loose end.
Standing Part
Part between the working end and the running end
Ladder Belt
Belt with a hook that secures the firefighter to the ladder
Class I Harness
Goes around waist and thighs or under buttocks and is intended to be used for emergency escape.
Class II Harness
Goes around waist thighs or butocks and is intended to hold a load up to 600 lbs. Loks just lke class I harness
Class III Harness
Harness that fastnes around the waist, thighs, and over shoulders. Also known as full body harness. Up to 600 lbs.
Rescue
Saving a Life from fire or accident
Extrication
Incidents involving the removal and treatment of victims who are trapped by some type of man-made machinery
Fire Attack and Interior Search Operations should be started...
simultaneously
two objectives of abuilding search
locating victims
obtining information about the size and extent of the fire
Primary Search Priorities
Most severely threatened
Largest Numbers
Remainder of Hazard Zone
Exposures
Equipment used in primary search
radio, TIC,flashlight, forcible entry tools
If you cant see your feet because of smoke...
You shouldn't be walking upright
Search Line System
used in searching large and comlex areas filled with smoke
every 20 feet there is a ring and knot(s) after the ring
1 knot means 20 feet, 2 = 40
When searching a multistory building the most critical areas are the...
Fire flor, flor directly above the fire, and the topmost floor. These should be searched first
During Primary search what should be done to doors
they should be closed
Marking Systems for Search and Rescue
Chalk or Crayon
Duct Tape
door markers
latch straps
Markings: One slash on door
Means room is being searched
Marking Systems: Two slashes
Means room has been searched
Incline Drag
Used by one rescuer to move a victim up or down stairs
Blanket Drag
Can be used by one rescuer and a blanket or sheet
Cradle In Arms Carry
Used to carry children or smal adults if they are conscious.
Seat Lift/Carry
Conscious or unconscious, using two recuers
Three -Person Lift/Carry
used to lift a pt who is lying down
Extremities Lft/Carry
can be used on a a conscious or unconscious victim
Inverter
step-up transformer that converts a vehicles 12 or 24 volt DC current to 110-220 volt AC current
Arc
A luminous discharge of electricity across a gap
Air Vacuum
Used with the air knife to remove soil near a trench collapse victim
High Pressure Bags
High Pressure bags made of rubber and reinforced with steel or Kevlar. Don't lift as far as medium and low pressure bags.
Low and Medium Pressure Bags
Used to stabiize and lift cars
How many bags should be stacked when lifting or stabilizing
No more than 2
Max contact temp allowed for air bags
220
Series of Pulleys in a wood or metal frame used to provide mechanical advantage
Block and Tackle
Turn Off Headlights
When they are not needed at an emergency scene to avoid blinding oncoming traffic
System used for sorting and classifying accident victims
Triage
Process of providing additional support to key places between an object of entrapment and the ground
Stabilization
When disabling power to vehicle by cutting cables what do you cut first
Black or Negative
SIPS
Side Impact Protection System
How long can power remain in restraint system after battery has been isolated
30 mins
Type of glass manufactured from two sheets that are bonded to a sheet of plastic between them. Used inWindshields
Laminated / Saftey Glass
Used in side windows. Designed so that glass breaks into many small pieces
Tempered Glass
Type of Construction Resistant to Earthquakes
Type V
Type Of Collapse: contains multiple voids. Simultaneous failure of exterior walls
Pancake Colapse
Type Of Collapse: Outer walls remain in tact and the upper floors and or roof sections fail. Good chance of habitable void spaces along wals
V shaped collapse
Type Of Collapse: When one outer wall fails while the other stays in tact
Lean-To Collapse
Type Of Collapse: Occurs when the floor and or roof assemblies on both sides of a center wall collapse into what might be seen as opposing lean to colapses
A Frame collapse
Collapse that happens after the initial collapse of a structure
Secondary Collapse
How far should ladders extend outside of a trench
3 feet
How far should a trench be cordoned off
100 feet
Characteristics of Confined Space
Large enough that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work
Limited or restricted means to exit and entry
Not designed for continuous employee occupancy
What must be stationed at the confined space entrance to track personnel and equipment entering and leaving the space
an attendant
In a confined space rescue where must the command post be stationed
out of the hotzone and not obstructing entrance/exit
What is the distance rescuers should stay away fom downed power lines
One span between poles
Techniques used byfire personnel to gain entry into buildings, vehicles, and aircraft when normal means of entry are locked or blocked
Forcible Entry
4 categories of forcible entry tools
Pushing/Pulling
Striking
Prying
Cutting
Smaller versions of the pick headed and flat headed axe are used for overhoaul
but are ineffective for forcible entry
Pick Head Axe
6# or 8# head
Most versatile Tool
Prying tool with a claw at one end and a spike or point at a right angle to a wedge at the other end
Halligan Tool
Rebar Cutters
Not meant to cut power lines
Oxyacetalene Torches
Hand carried or Wheeled
Cut through heavy metal components
Acetylene
Colorless gas that has an explosive range from 2.5 to 81 percent in air. used as fuel for cutting and welding operations
Never exceed 15 psi operating pressure when operating
acetylene cutters
OxyGasoline cutting torches
Dual Hose
New to fire service
fully functional undr water
Fire cant go back up line because fuel is delivered in liquid form
Burning Bars
Exothermic Cutting Rods
Cuts through concrete and metal very fast
Plasma Cutters
Metal Cutters
Numerous gases
Cutting Flare
Like a normal flare
Flames for 15 seconds to two minutes
Rotary Saw
Larger than circular saw
doent need a seperate power source
Rambar
Requires only one person to operate
Like Haligan witha sliding handle to open doors
Carrying tools: Axes
Away from body.
Pick Headed axe: put axe head undr arm and grasp pick end
Types Of Lifts
Extremities Lift/Carry (2 person
Fire Walls are made from
Masonry
Type III construction
Resists fire spread from external structures
Can Bowstring trusses be easily identified from street level
No
NFPA 1982 Refers To
Pass Devices
NFPA 1901 says there should be how many fire extinguishers on an apparatus
2
Wet Chemical Extinguishers are used for which type of fire
Class K
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers work on what classes of fire
B and C
NFPA 10 recommends fire extinguishers be identified by
Pictographs
NFPA 10 refers to
Fire Extinguishers
Firefighters must continue to where their SCBA as long as carbon monoxide reading are above ____
50 ppm
3 methods of gaining access to victims in vehicles
Normally operating door
Through a Window
By tearing off parts of a vehicles body
3 Types of Wood Swinging Doors
Panel, Slab, Ledge
3 Types of Metal Swinging Doors
Hollow Metal , Tubular, and Metal Clad
Types of overhead doors
Sectional, Tilt Slab, Roll-Up, Telescoping
Which type of overhead door has its locking mechanism located in the center of the door
Sectional
Characteristics of Slab Doors
Wooden, Solid or Hollow Core, Used in Homes, Very Common, Swinging Door
Panel Door Characteristics
Wooden Swinging Door
Solid Wooden panels inset with wood or glass
Characteristics of Ledge Doors
Wooden Swinging Door
Found in Warehouses, Barns and Sheds
Known as Baten Doors
Rabbeted Jamb
Jamb into which a shoulder has been milled to permit the door to close against the provided shoulder
Metal Clad Door Characteristics
Wetal swinging door
Wood core with metal skin
Tubular Metal Doors
Metal Swining door
slot is provided for inseting glass
Like doors to 101
Hollow Metal Doors
Filled with fire resistive material
Revolving Door Types
Panic Proof
Drop Arm Type
Metal Braces
Panic Proof Revolving Door Characteristics
1/4 " cable holding door panels. Release is triggered by force pushing in opposite direction
Drop Arm Revolving Door Characteristics
Solid arm passing through one of the panels
press pawl to disengage arm and push panel parallel to other panel then repeat
Metal Braced Revolving Door Characteristics
Resembles a Gate Hook and Eye Assembly
Hollow Metal Doors
Filled with fire resistive material
Revolving Door Types
Panic Proof
Drop Arm Type
Metal Braces
Panic Proof Revolving Door Characteristics
1/4 " cable holding door panels. Release is triggered by force pushing in opposite direction
Drop Arm Revolving Door Characteristics
Solid arm passing through one of the panels
press pawl to disengage arm and push panel parallel to other panel then repeat
Metal Braced Revolving Door Characteristics
Resembles a Gate Hook and Eye Assembly
Sectional Overhead Doors
Not too hard to force
locking mechanisms in middle
Pry upward on door to force may need to remove a panel
Tilt Slab Overhead Doors
Called "Awning Doors"
Can be difficult to fors
May be obstructed by vehicles
Very Heavy
Locking mechanism located on one side or the other
Roll Up Overhead Door
Called Sheet Curtain Doors
Usually have a man door next to them which would be easier to force
Telescoping Overhead Doors
telescope
When forcing an overhead door
Use a rotary saw to cut an openingabout 6 feet high and nearly the full width of the door
Fire Door Types
Horizontal and Vertical Sliding
Single and Double Swinging
Overhead Rolling
Mortise Lock
Fits into cavity of door
consists of a latch mechanism and an opening device
Has a Bolt the proturdes into a reciever mortised into the jamb
Bored or Cylindrical Locks
Involves boring two holes at right angles to one another
Rim Lock
identified by a cylinder that isrecessed into the door by a bored latching mechanism
Whos responsibilty is it to install a lock box
property owners
wh inspects a lock boxes installation
fire dept
K Tool
Used to pull all types of lock cylinders
A tool
Same as K tool for most part but may cause more damage
J Tool
Made of Rigid Heavy Guage Wire
Designed to fit between double hanging doors equipped with panic hardware
Shove Knife
Resembles a wide putty knife
Opens outward swinging latch-type doors
Bam Bam Tool
uses a case hardened screw that is screwed into the keyway of a padlock. Pull on sliding hammer to remove tumbler
Tools used to break padlocks
Duck-Billed Lock Breaker
Hammerhead Pick
Locking Pliers and Chain
Hockey Puck Lock Breaker
Bam Bam Tool
Common Window Styles
Double Hung (Check Rail)
Hinged (Casement)
Projected (Factory)
Awning or Jalouise (hinge on top)
Stitch drilling concrete
beforehand majes breaching easier
Which NFPA standard deals with ladders
1932
Characteristics of Wood Ladders
Highest Cost
Heaviest
Retains strength when exposed to heat
Very Durable
Hard to Repair
Use the 3 firefighter flat shoulder raise
On extension ladders up to 35 feet
Ladders up to 35 feet or longer should be raised by
3 firefighters
How should conscious victims be lowered down a ladder
Feet first facing the building
An unconscious victim will be lowered down a ladder
facing rescuer and redsting on their knee
When using a ladder to rescue small children
cradle them in your arms
Main structural component of a ladder supporting the rungs or rung blocks
Beam
Lowest and widest section of an extension ladder
Bed Section
Bottom end of ladder
Butt
Metal plates or spikes, cleats attached to the butt of a ground ladder
Butt Spurs
Upper section of an extension ladder
Dogs/Pawls
Swivel plates attached to the but of the ladder, usually have rubber or neoprene bottom surfaces
Footpads
Wood or metal strips, sometimes in the form of slots or channelson an extension ladder that guide the fly while being raised
Guides
Rope or cable used for hoisting and lowering fly sections of an extension ladder
Halyard
Label affixed to the inside of each beam of each ladder section
Heat sensor label
Curved metal devices installed near the top end of roof ladders to secure the ladder to the highest point on apeaked roof
Hooks
Another name for the bed of a ladder
Base or main section
Devices attached to the inside of the beams on fly sectionsused to hold the fly section in place after it has been extended
Pawls / Locks / Dogs
Strips of metal attached to ladders at chafing points, such as the tips, ar at areas where they com into contact with the apparatus mounting brackets
Protection Plates
Small grooved wheel through which the halyard is drawn on an extension ladder
Pulley
Two lengthwise members of a trussed ladder beam that are seperated by truss or seperation blocks
Rails
Cross members that provide the foothold for climbing
rungs
Another name for footpads on a ladder
Shoes
Metal rods extending from one beam to another
Tie Rods
Extreme top of ladder
Tip
Spacers set between the rails of a trussed ladder; sometimes used to support rungs
Truss Block
scaling ladder with a single beam and a large curved hook that can be put over windowsills for climbing
Pompier ladder
Types of Single Ladders
Roof (folding hooks)
Attic Ladders (folding ladders)
Length of Roof Ladders
12 - 24 feet
Lngth of Folding Ladders
8 - 16 feet (10 feet most common)
Types of Extension Ladders
Extension
Pole (Bangor)
Large extension ladder that requires tormentor poles to steady and the ladder as it is raised
Pole Ladder
Length of Extension Ladders
12-39 feet
Ladders longer than ____ must me equipped with stay poles
40 feet
Most modern pole ladders do not exceed ______
5o feet
Keeping equipment or apparatus in a ready state
Maintenance
To restore or put together that which has becomeinoperable or out of place
Repair
Ladders designed so that they may be self supporting step ladders (A frame)
Combination Ladder
Length of combination ladders
10-16 feet
Used to climb from floor to floor via exterior windows
Scaling or Pompier Ladders
Characteristics of a Metal ladder
Good conductor of heat
Easy to repair
Can fail when subjected to heat
Widest Range of Sizes
Characteristics of Wood Ladders
Highest cost of Ladders
Heaviest per unit of length
Retains strength when exposed to heat or flame
Very Durable
Characteristics of Fiberglass Ladders
Poor conductor of electricity
Can suddenly crack or fail when overloaded
Can burn when exposed to flame
NFPA 1931
Referes to certification of ladders, states ladder meets the standard
NFPA 1932
Standard on Use, Maintenance, and service testing of ladders
Most effective way to clean a ladder
Soft bristle brush and running water
Do not place ladders
Near exhaust pipes
Inspect ladders when
On a monthly basis and after each use
What to look for when inspecing wooden ladders
Areas where finidh has been scraped or chafed
Darkening of the varnish
Dark streaks in wood
Marred, worn, cracked or splintered parts
Rounded or smooth edges
Water Damage
Inspecting Roof ladders
Make sure hook assemblies operate with ease, no rust or deformities
NFPA 1901
Standard for automotive apparatus
sets minimum lengths and types of ladders to be carried on all pumpers
What ladders should be carried on all pumpers
Straight ladder with roof hooks
Extension Ladder
Attic Ladder
Aerial Apparatus must have the following ladders
1 10 foot or longer attic ladder
2 roof ladders equipped with hooks
1 combination ladder
1 24 foot or longer extension ladder
1 35 foot extension ladder
Do not raise ladders within ____ of electical lines
10 feet
On a ladder firefighters must be placed no closer than
10 feet
Use a leg lock or ladder belt to
tye into ladder
Rules of thumb for ladder length
Extend the ladder 3-5 rungs above the roof edge
Place the tip of the ladder even with the top of the window and to the upwind side for ventilation
place the tip of the ladder just below the window sill for rescue from a window
On extension ladders the measured length may be as much as ____ inches less than the designated length
6
Who gives command to lift ladder
firefighter at the butt
Who determines exact placement of ladder
firefighter at the butt
Carry the forward end of the ladder slightly ____ to provide better balance
lower
Types of Ladder Carries
One Firefighter Low Shoulder (single or roof ladders)
2 Firefighter Low Shoulder (single, roof, extension laddrs up to 35 feet)
3 firefighter flat shoulder (extension ladders up to 35 feet)
4 firefighter flat shoulder carry (same as 3 ff )
2 Firefighter arms length on edge (light ladders on bed section side)
Carry a roof ladder
use low shoulder with tips forward
When tips are opened carry them away from firefighter
Gasoline or hydraulically driven blower device used primarily to expel smoke from burning buildings. Sometimes used to blow fresh air into a building to assist in purging smoke or other contaminents
Smoke Ejector
When using a ladder to hold a smoke ejector place it
directly in front of window with tip on wall above window
In general all metal or fiberglass ladders are designed to be placed ___
Fly Out
Secure the halyard with a
Clove hitch and saftey knot
Wooden Ladders are typically placed
Fly In
Lowering an unconscious victim
Can be done with victim facing in or out resting on rescuers knee, keep legs outside of beams to avoid entanglement.
Or place one arm under victims arm and another under vistims leg
The systematic removal of heated air, smoke, and fire gases from a burning building and replacing them with cooler air
Ventillation
4 types of fire service ventillation
Natural
Vertical
Horizontal
Mechanical
Why should you never direct a hose stream into a ventillation opening before the fire has been controlled
Doing so may compromise ventillation and put fire crews in danger
Ceiling Jets and Mushrooming
Ceiling jets are a more tchnical term for mushrooming
Considerations affecting the need to ventillate
Is there a need to ventilate at his time (based on moke, heat)
Where is ventillation needed?
What type of ventillation should be used?
Do fire and structural condiions allow for safe roof openings?
Are your personnel trained enough to do the ventillaion?
Phenomenon oa a strong air draft moving from ground level to the roof level of abuilding. Affected by building height, configuration, and temperature differences between inside and outside air
Stack Effect
How is the personnel involved in in firefighting operations different between low-rise and high rise buildings?
You typically need 4 to 6 times the amount of personnel
Ususally only the _____ penetrates the roof in high rise buildings
Stair Well
Engineered trusses in roofs
can fail without warning
Mansard
Gambrel
Hip
Single cut made the width of a saw blade made in a roof to check for fire extension
Kerf Cut
Rectangular exit opening cut in a roof, allowing a section of roof deck to be tilted thus creating an opening similar to a louver
Louver or vent cut
Horizontal member between trusses that supports the roof
Purlin
Defensive tactic that involves cuttin an exit opening in the roof of a burning building , extending from one outside wall to the other, to create an opening which a spreading fire may be cut off
Trench Ventillation
Technique used to develop artificial circulation and to pull smoke out of a structure.
Negative -Pressure Ventillation
Smoke churns when a smoke ejector is not properly sealed witha asalvage cover in the window
Churning
In PPV how far should blower be placed from doorway?
4 - 10 feet
Method of ventillating a fire building by directing a fog stream of water out a window to increase air and smoke movement
Hydraulic Ventilation
Flat Roof are found on
Commercial, Industrial, Appartment Buildings and some single family residences
Advantages of forced ventilation
supplements and enhances natural ventillation
Ensures more positive control of air flow
Speeds the removal of contaminents
Reduces smoke damage
promotes public relations
Firefighters need to know the following in regards to pressure in a water supply system
Static Pressure
Flow Presure
Residual Pressure
4 Components of a Water Supply System
Sources of Water Supply
Means of Moving Water
Water Treatment Facilities
Water Storage and Distribution Systems
Three methods of moving water in a water supply system
Direct Pumping
Gravity Systems
Combination Systems
Water supply system supplied by a series of pumps rather than elevated storage tanks
Direct Pumping System
How much higher must the water source of a gravity fed water system be than the highest point of water in the system to be considered effective
100 feet
Fire hydrant that receives water from two or more directions
Circulating Feed
Water main arranged in a complete circuit so that water will be supplied to a given point from more than one direction. Also called circle system, circulating system, or belt system.
Loop System
Wate system's network of underground pipes
Mains
Fire hydrant that receives water from only one direction
Dead End Hydrant
A distribution system that provides circulating feed from all directions is called a
Grid System
Large Mains, with widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points in the system for distribution to secondaryfeeders and smaller mains
Primary Feeder
Network of intermediate-sized mains that subdivide the grid within various loops of primary feeders and supply the distributors
Secondary Feeders
Grid arrangement of smaller mains serving individual fire hydrants or blocks of consumers
Distributors
Recommended size for fire hydrant mains in residential Areas
6 inches (should be cross connected with 8 inch mains not more than 600 feet apart)
Recommended size for fire hydrant mains in commercial Areas
8 inches
Recommended size for fire hydrant mains in principal streets and in long mains not cross-connected at frequent intervals
12 inches
A type of control valve for sprinkler systems in which the position of the center screw indicates whether the valve is open or closed
OS&Y valve (Outside stem and yoke)
A type of valve used to control underground water mains that provides a visual means for indicating "open" or "shut" position. Found n the supply main of installed fire protection systems
Post Indicator Valve
Control valve with a solid plate operated by a handle and screw mechanism.
Gate Valve
Type of control valve that uses a flat circular plate in the pipe which rotates ninety degrees across the cross section of the pipe to control flow
Butterfly Valve
Three pressures that are of concern in a water distribution system
Static Pressure
Flow Pressure
Residual Pressure
Potential energy that is available to force water through pipes. Pressure at a point in a water system when no water is flowing
Static Pressure
Pressure at the test hydrant while water is flowing from another nearby hydrant
Residual Pressure
Pressure created by the rate of flow or velocity of water coming from a discharge opening
Static Pressure
In general all fire bonnets, barrels, and foot pieces are made of
Cast Iron
Internal parts of hydrants are made of
bronze
These type of hydrants are avilable whenever there are prolonged periods of subfreezing temps
Dry Barrel
Who oversees the installation of fire hydrants
Water Dept Personnel
Where should fire hydrants be placed/spaced
300 feet in high value districts
at every other intersection
Light Blue Hydrant Specs
Class AA
1500 gpm or greater
Green Hydrants
Class A
1000 - 1499 gpm
Orange Hydrants
Class B
500 - 999
Red Hydrants
Class C
< 500 gpm
Fire Hydrant Testing
Remove all caps except 1 2/12 cap
Instrument that is inserted into a flowing fluid to measure the velocity pressure of the stream
pitot tube
Standard on water supplies for suburban and rural firefighting
NFPA 1142
Water shuttles are recommended for distances of over
1/2 mile
Portable water tanks should hold
1,000 gallons plus
Point at which a fire dept can connect into a standpipe or sprinkler to boost the waterflow into the system.
Fire Dept Connection (FDC)
Flexible tube used by firefighters to carry water or other extinguishing agents under pressure from a source of supply to a point of application
Fire Hose
Most Common Types of Fire Hose
Single Jacket
Double Jacket
Rubber Single Jacket
Hard Rubber/Plastic non collapsible
Type of hose that is
Rubber Covered
Rubber Lined
Fabric Reinforced
Booster 3/4 - 1 "
Type of hose that is
One or Two Woven Jackets
Rubber Lined
Woven Jacket Hose
Type of hose that is
Polymer Covered
Polymer Lined
Impregnated Single Jacket
The size of a fire hose refers to its
Inside Diameter
Common Sizes of Fire Hose
50" or 100"
Pieces of fire hose are referred to as
Lengths or Sections
Large diameter collapsible fire hose used to connect a pumper to a pressurized water source
Soft Intake Hose
Flexible rubber hose reinforced with a steel core to prevent collapse from atmospheric pressure
Hard Intake Hose
NFPA standard for fire hose
1961
NFPA standard for fire hose connection
1963
NFPA standard states that a pumper must carry how much hose
15' large soft intake or 20' hard intake
800' of 21/2" hose
400 ' of 11/2 ,13/4 or 2"
What do you do to keep hose liner from drying out
roll hose in a straight roll
Woven jacketed hose is subject to dangers from mold and mildew
true dat
How to clean hose exposed to chemicals
scrub with baking soda and water
remove from apparatus peiodically and wash and dry it
Wash hose with rubber hose and hard intake hose wih
water only
If hose has been exposed to oil
wash with mild soap and water, rinse thoroughly with water
Male Side of Coupling
Has rocker lugs on shank
No lugs on female shank
Part of coupling that serves as a point of attachment to the hose
Shank (Tailpiece, Bowl, Shell)
Three types of lugs
Pin (not common)
Rocker
Recessed (booster)
Special cut at the beginning of the thread on a hose coupling that provides positive identification of the first thread to eliminate cross-threading
Higbee Cut (On threads)
Notches or grooves cut into coupling lugs to identify by touch or sight the exact location of the higbee cut
Higbee Indicators (On Lugs)
Storz Couplings Unlock with
A 1/4 turn
Used to make connection water tight between female and male threaded connections
Swivel Gasket
Used at the end of the hose where the hose is expanded into the shank of the coupling
Expansion Ring Gasket
Any piece of hardware used in conjunction with fire hose for the purpose of delivering water
Hose Appliance (water flows through appliances not tools)
Used in pumper discharges and gated wyes.
Ball valves
Used to control water flow from a hydrant. Has a baffle that is moved by handle and screw arrangement
gate Valves
Used on large pump intakes and incorporate a flat baffle that turns 90 degrees . 1/4 turn
Butterfly Valve
Used in siamese appliances
clapper valves
Hose appliance with one female inlet and two or more male outlets
Wye
Gated Wye is valve controlled
Combines 2 or more hoselines into one
siamese
Any of a variety of hose appliances with one female inlet for 2 1/2 inch or larger hose and with three gated outlets
Water Thief (T in wildland connections)
Another name for Large Diameter Hose Appliances
Portable Hydrants
Phantom Pumpers
Allows additional pumpers to connect to a hydrant without losin pressure
Hydrant Valves
Fitting for connecting hoses with dissimilar threads
adapter
device that facilitates the connection of hoselines of different sizes to provide an uninterrupted flow of extinguishing agent
Fitting
Adapter used to attach a smaller hose to a larger hose
adapter
provide support for intake or discharge hose at a pumper
elbow adapters
Protect threads on male discharge outlets
hose caps
Female inlets areHO capped with
Hose Plugs
Can be applied to a hose to temporarily repair a rupture or leak in a hose
Hose Jacket
Prevent mechanical damage to hoselines that cross windowsills or wall parapets
Hose Rollers
Hose Tools (water doesn't flow through these)
Hose Roller
Hose Jacket
Hose Clamp
Spanner Wrench
Hose Bridge
When do you use a straight roll
When loaded back on apparatus at fire scene
When returned to quarters for washing
Storage
Can be used to reduce stress on the nozzle operator and improve the mobility of a charged hoseline
Hose Straps
Use this roll where fire hose is likely to be deployed for use directly from a roll
Donut Roll
This roll can be slung together with webbing and can be used in high rise applications
Twin Donut Roll
Arrangement of hose usually placed on top of a hose load and conected to the end of the load
Finish
3 common loads for supply hoselines
Accordian
Flat
Horsehoe
2 purposes of a dutchman
Changes direction of coupling
changes the location of a coupling
Arrangement of fire hose in a hose bed in which the hose lies on edge with the flods adjacent to one another
Accordian Load
(ease of loading and shoulder carry)
Arrangement of fire hose in a hose bed or compartment in which the hose lies on edhe in the form of a horshoe
Horshoe Load
Hose Load Finishes 2 Categories
Those for forward lays (Straight Finish)
Reverse Lays (reverse horseshoe, skid load)
This load is adaptable for varying widths of hose beds and is often used in transverse beds
Preconnected flat load
This load has hose folded in three layers. Pulled by one person
Triple Layer Load
This type of load can be carried and advanced by one person. Carried on the shoulder
Minuteman Load
Hose lay deployed by two pumpers, one doing a forward lay the second doing a reverse lay
Split Lay
One of the quickest and easiest ways to move hose at ground level
The working line drag
Preservice tests on fire apparatus or equipment performed at the factory or after delivery to ensure the purchaser that the apparatus or equipment meets bid specifications
Acceptance Testing
Series of tests performed on equipment to ensure their readiness
Service Test
How many components make up threaded couplings
2 male and female
What is the easiest supply hose load to load
Flat Load
When replacing a burst section of hose how many additional sections should be used to replace one burst section
2
Test for fire hose that should not be attempted by fire dept personnel and exerts pressures much higher than those in the field
Acceptance Testing
Extinguishing qualities of water
cooling
dilluting or excluding oxygen
absorbs heat by converting to water vapor or steam
Visible form of steam
condensed steam
Quantity of heat absorbed by a substance at the point at which it changes from a liquid to a vapor
Latent heat of vaporization
Hose stream that stays together as a solid mass as opposed to a fog or spray stream. Produced by a solid bore nozzle.
Solid Stream (not to be confused with a straight stream)
Water stream of finely divided particles used for fire control
Fog Stream
Stream of water that has been broken into coarsely divided drops
Broken Stream
That part or total pressure that is lost while forcing water through pipes, fittings,fire hose, and adapters
Friction Loss
Discharges less than 40 gpm including those fed by booseter lines. Typically supplied by 3/4 inch, 1 inch, 1 1/2" hoseline
Low-Volume Stream
Supplied by 1 1/2" - 3" hose, with flows from 40 - 350 gpm.
Handline stream (flows greater than 350 gpm not recommended)
Discharges greater than 350 gpm and is fed by 2 1/2 or 3" hoselines or LDH
Master Stream
Fire Streams
Low Volume (40 gpm or less)
Handline (40 - 350 gpm)
Master (350+ gpm)
Fire Stream Patterns
Solid
Fog
Broken
A stream that does not lose its continuity until it reaches the point where it loses forward velocity
BreakOver
These streams operate at lower pressures
Solid Stream
When spraying enegized electrical equipment
Dont use solid streams. Use fog streams with at least 100 psi
Types of streams created with fog nozzles
Straight Stream
Narrow Fog
Wide Fog
The designed operating pressure of most combination nozzles
100 psi
Cellar nozzle is an example of a
broken stream nozzle
Valve control that seats a movable cylinder against a shaped cone to turn off the flow of water.
Slide Valve
Consists of an exterior barrel guided by a screw that moves it forward or backward, rotating around an interior barrel.
Rotary Control Valve
Act of creating a barrier between the fuel and the fire
Seperating
Reduction of heat by the quenching action or heat absorption of the extinguishing agent
Cooling
Act of excluding oxygen from a fuel
Smothering
Flammable liquids that have an attraction for water, much like positive magnetic pole attracts a negative pole
Polar Solvents
Lowers the surface tension of water and allows it to penetrate deep seated fires
Foam
Raw foam liquid before the introduction of water and air
Foam concentrate
Device that introduces foam concentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution
Foam Proportioner
Mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air
Foam Solution
Completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution
Foam
mixed with water
proportioned
mixed with air
aerated
Foam concentrate that combines the qualitites of fluoroprotein foam with those of aqueous film forming foam
Film Forming Fluroprotein Foam FFFP
Process used to mix foam concentrate with water in a nozzle proportioner. Water is drawn into the water stream via the venturi method
Eduction (part of induction)
Method of proportioning foam that uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate into the fire stream at the correct ratio for the flow desired
Injection
Mechanocal blower generator that is similar in appearance to a smoke ejector
Mechanical Blower Generator
Eductor that is placed along the length of a hoseline
In-Line Eductor
Foam Application Techniques
Roll-On (spray in front and foam rolls onto fuel)
Bank-Down (spray object near fuel, foam banks down object onto fire)
Rain Down (used on large fires or spills)
Which type of foam is commonly used at the rate of 20:1 or 200:1 through hydralically operated nozzle delivery systems
Medium Expansion
What is the best appliance for the generation of low expansion foam
Air aspirating foam nozzle
Class B foams are best used on what two types of flammable liquids
polar solvents
hydrocarbons
Solid bore nozzles and foam
can only deliver certain types of class A foam
These nozzles can be used to produce a short acting low expansion foam
fog nozzles
20:1 - 200:1
Medium Expansion Foam
200:1 - 1000:1
High expansion foam
Start fire attack here
unburned side
For interior firefighting what is the smallest handline to be used
1 1/2"
A fire that you cannot see from the doowrway because objects are shielding it
Shielded Fire
reducing the hazard presented by the hot gas layer
gas cooling
When gas cooling what do you set the fog nozzle at
40 - 60 degree fog pattern
Technique for gas cooling
1 to 2 second bursts
stop spraying smoke when water droplets begin to fall overhead
Attack method that involves discharge of water or a foam stream directly onto burning fuel
Direct attack
Applying short burts of water directly onto the fire in a direct attack until the fire "darkens down" is known as
Penciling
TEchnique used to cool hot surfaces to slow or stop the pyrolysis process by gently applying water and allowing it to run over the hot material
Painting
Directing fire streams toward a ceiling of a room or building in order to generate a large amount of steam.
Indirect Attack
Battling a fire using an indirect and direct attack
Combination Attack
Biggest difference between direct and indirect attack
Direct is started inside compartment wheile indirest is started outside compartment
When to use master streams
Direct Fire Attack
Backup handlines
Exposure Protection
Master streams should enter structure so they bounce of ceilings
werd
What are the smallest hoselines used to supply a master stream
2 1/2"
a Maximum of _____ feet should be used to supply a master stream.
100
Most common aerial devices
Quints
Aerial Ladders
Aerial Platforms
Water Towers
Pumper with a hydraulically operated extension ladder with a pump
Quint
Pumper with a hydraulically operated extension ladder
Aerial Ladder (50-135 feet)
A power operated aerial device that combines an aerial ladder with a personnel carrying platform supported at the end of a ladder
Aerial Ladder Platform
Aerial device in which the structural member support is hinged and operates in a folding manner
Articulating Aerial Platform
Pumpers equipped with hydraulically operated booms
Water Towers (50 - 130 feet)
Liquids that have flash points of less than 100 degrees farenheit
Flammable Liquids
(Gasoline and Acetone)
Flammable liquids with flash points higher than 100 degrees farenheit
Combustible Liquids
(Kerosene and Vegetable oIL)
Rapid vaporization of a liquid stored under pressure upon release to the atmosphere following major failure of its containing vessel.
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)
Method most often used to control flammable liquid fires
Applying Foam
Using water to Control Class B Fires
Cooling Agent
Mechanical Tool (sweeping back and forth to move fuel)
Crew Protection (shutting off control valves)
What happens to natural gas that leaks underground in wet soil
Can lose its odorant
Natural gas in its pure form is called
Methane
non toxic and lighter than air
odor added to methane
mercaptan
Natural gas is explosive in concentrations between
5 and 15 percent
Another name for liquefied Petroleum Gas
bottled gas
Two main types of LPG
butane
propane
LPG charactersitcs
Heavier than air
If gas is burning from a broken gas pipe what do you do
Protect exposures dont put out fire
Cutoff valve found at gas meter
petcock
When it is necessary to turn off electricity to a structure the main power switch should be
Locked and Tagged
Toxic compound found in some older oil-filled electrical transormers
Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
USe this type of extinguisher to extinguish fires in transformers at ground level
dry chemical or carbon dioxide
Allow pole top transformers to be put out by utility personnel
kj
Entrants should search high voltage areas with a _____
clenched fist to avoid grabbing wires
You do not need to turn off power to the whole building if fire is only located in part of i
you can use electricity for lighting etc...
Do not pull the electrical meter
IFSTA says so
Produced by an electrical current passing from a downed power line through the ground along the path of least resistance
Ground Gradient
Size Up Questions
Are there occupants in need of immediate rescue?
Are only contents involved or is it a structure fire
Are exposures threatened by fire?
Are there enough resources?
Second Due Engine Co Responsibilities
Ensure adequate water supply
Backup Initial Atack Line
Protect secondary means of egress
Prevent Fire Extension
Protect the most threatened exposure
Assist in extinguishment
Assist with fireground support company operations
First Due Engine companies priorities
Intervene between trapped occupants and the fire
Protect rescuers
Protect primary means of egress
Protect interior exposures
Protect exterior exposures
Initiate extinguishment from the unburned side
Operate master streams
To aggressively attack a fire from the exterior with a large diameter fire stream
Blitz Attack
Support companies are typically
ladder trucks, quints, rescue units
Staging on a muti story building is locate where
2 floor below the fire floor
On a multistory fire where is the fire attack initiated
On the floor below the fire
Fire Orders
Keep informed on weather conditions
Know what the fire is doing at all times
Base al actions on current and expected behavior of the fire
Identify escape routes and safety zones
Post lookouts
Be alert keep calm think clearly, act decisively
Maintain communications with your forces
Give clear instructions make sure they are understood
Maintain control of your forces at all times
Fight fire aggressively providing for safety first
3 main uses for a master stream
Back up handlines that are already atacking fire from the exterior
Direct Fire Attack
Exposure Protectionq
System of water pipes, discharge nozzles, and control valves designed to activate during fires by automatically discharging water
Automatic sprinkler System
Sprinkler, standpipe, carbon dioxide, and halogenated systems, as well as their fire pumps, dry chemical agents and their systems, foam extinguishers, and combustible metal agents that sense heat, smoke, or gas and activate automatically
Automatic Suppression Systems
Alarm that detects fire and alerts those only on the immediate premises. They do not notify fire dept
Protected premises alarm system
Types of Heat Detectors
Fixed Temperature (activate when a certain temp is reached)
Rate of Rise Detectors (when temp rises more than 12 degrees in 1 minute)
Fixed Temp Devices
Fusible Link (expansion of heated materials)
Fusible Bulb
Continous Line
Small glass vial fitted into the discharge orifice of a fire sprinkler
Frangible Bulb
Conecting link device that fuses or melts when exposed to heat
Fusible Device
Can detect heat over a linear surface as opposed to others that can only detect in the spot where they are located
Continuous Line Detector
Stip or Disk composed of two different materials thate are bonded together
Bimetallic
3 basic types of flame detectors
Those that detect ultraviolet light
Infrared
Both IR and UV
These are released from all fires
Water vapor
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Detection Device Responses
Smoke Detector Fastest
Fire Gas Detector
Heat Detector
3 types of auxillary systems
Local Energy System
Shunt System
Parallel Telephone System
An auxillary alarm system that is within an occupancy that is attached directly to a hard wired or radio type municipal fire alarm box
Local Energy System
system that connects the protected property with the fire dept alarm communications center by a municipal master fire alarm box or over a dedicated phone line
Auxillary Alarm Syatem
Alarm actuated by heat smoke or gas. Or alarm boxes that automatically transmit a coded signal to the fire station to give the location of the alarm box
Automatic Alarm
NFPA standard for installation of Sprinkler systems
13
How much clearance should be between sprinklers and stored materials
18"
Vertical water pipe used to carry water for fire protection systems such
riser
Types of sprinklers
Pendant (points downward, storage areas or industrial occupancies)
Upright(Sits upright and sprays against a deflector)
Sidewall (sits on wal of room)
Special Purpose
Sprinkler cabinets store a minimum of ___ sprinklers
6
Yoke on the outside with a threaded stem
OS & Y
Hollow metal post that houses valve stem. Attached to the valve is a movable plate reading "open" "Closed"
PIV
Similar to a PIV except that it extends horizontally through the wall with the target and valve operating nut on the outside of the building
WPIV (Wall Post Indicator Valve)
Does not use plate like PIV but instead uses a circular disc
Post Indicator Valve Assembly
A minimum water supply has to deliver the required volume of water to the highest sprinkler with a residual pressure of ____
15 psi
Whsn supplying to an FDC
Pumper should have a 1,000 gpm pump
minimum of 2 x 2 1/2 "
Operate from hydrants other than the main supplying the sprinkler system
Types of Sprinkler systems
Wet Pipe (temp > 40)
Dry Pipe (temp < 40)
Preaction (like dry pipe with 2 detection systems)
Deluge (like dry, spinklers have no fusible link and do not detect heat)
Residential
Who connects to the FDC
First arriving company
Turn off control valves to
Replace sprinklers
Interrupt Operation
Perform Maintenance
Which type rate - of - rise detectors of detector is designed for use in areas that are normally subject to regular temperature changes that are slower than those in fire conditions
Rate compensated detector
Quality of an organization's relationship with individuals, both internal and external who have contact wih the organization
Customer Service
The practice of minimizing damage and providing customer service through effective mitigation and recovery efforts, before, during, and after an incident
Loss Control
The process in which specific potential risks are identified and evaluated
loss control risk analysis
Methods and operating procedures associated with fire fighting by which firefighters attempt to save property and reduce further damage from water, smoke, heat and exposure during or immediately after a fire by removingproperty from a fire area, by covering it, or by other means.
Salvage
Operations conducted once the main body of the fire has been extinguished and consists of searching for and extinguishing remaining fire, placing building and contents in safe condition, determining cause of fire, recognizing and preserving evidence of arson
Overhaul
Salvage cover arrangement that channels excess water from a building.
Chute
Waterproof cover made of cotton duck, plastic, or other material used by fire dept to protect unaffected furniture and building areas from heat, smoke, and water damage
Salvage Cover
Used to carry debris, catch falling debris, and provide a water basin for immersing small objects
Carryalls (Debris Bags / Buckets)
Used to remove water from basements, elevator shafts, and sumps
Deatering devices
Used to hang salvage covers from walls or vertical openings
J Hooks
Used to hang salvage covers from rails or furniture
S Hooks
This type of throw is the most common for 2 firefighter to deploy a large salvage cover
Balloon Throw
When can salvage operations Begin
At the same time as fire attack
Where does overhaul typically begin
In the area of most severe fire involvement
A fire deliberately set
Incediary or Arson Fire
In an arson fire the prosecution must prove the perpetrator acted _____ and _____
willfully and maliciously
Three factors relating to cause of a fire
Fuel that ignited
Form and Source of Heat Ignition
Act or omission that helped to bring these two factors together
Continuous changes of possession of physical evidence that must be established in court to admint such material into evidence
Chain of Custody
In most jurisdictions the ____ has the legal rsponsibility for determining the cause and origin of he fire
Fire Chief
First arriving fire fighters should make note of
Vehicles and people present
Status of doors and windows
Evidence of forced entry
Contents of rooms
Indications of unusual firebehavior
Observation en route to a fire
Time of Day
Weather and Natural Hazards
Barriers
People leaving the scene
Observations made upon arrival at a fire
Time of arrival and extent of fire
Wind direction and velocity
Doors or windows locked or unlocked
Location of Fire
Containers or Cans
Burglary Tools
Familiar Faces
Combustible material, such as rolled rags, blankets, newspapers, or flammable liquid,often used in intentionally set fires
Trailer
Observations during firefighting Ops
Unusual Odors
Abnormal behavior of fire when water is applied
Obstacles hindring fire fighting
Incendiary Devices
Trailers
Structural Alterations
Should owners be allowed to speak freely about the fire if they are inclined to do so
Yes
Firefighters should not interrogate a potential arson subject unless they are trained and authorized to do so
jkjh
What should be your reply to questions about the fire?
The fire is under investigation
Evidence presented by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else
Hearsay
Does the fire dept have the authority to deny access to any building during fire fighting operations
Yes
Once firefighters clear a fire scene they may be required to get ____ to renter
Search Warrant
The fire scene emains in control of the ______ until the investigation is complete
Fire Dept
Time accepted to be standard to dispatch call
1 minute
Any location or facility at which 911 calls are answered either by direct calling rerouting or diverting
Public Safety Answering Point
(PSAP)
NFPA standard that refers to the qualifications for a pubplic safety telecommunicator
1061
The ____ is the most widely used device for communicating fire alams.
Public Telephone
feature that allows telecomunicators to maintain access to a caller's phone line as long as the telecommunicator does not hang up
called party hold
The reverse of called party hold, when a telecommunicator hangs up the person calling can keep the line open if they lose consciousness this feature disconnects them
forced disconect
Enhanced 911 feature that displays the address of the party calling 911 on a screen for use by the public safety telecommunicator
Automatic Location Identification
Feature that allows the telecommunicator to call back a caller's phone after he or she has hung up
Ringback
Low powered radio transceiver that operates on frequencies authorized by the federal communications commision for public use with no lcense requirement
Citizens Band (CB) Radio
What is the role of a public safety answering point
Forward calls to the station
What is the first step a telecommunicator should do when receiving an emergency call
Identify the agency
What is not used to alert personnel of an unstaffed station
House Light
Hazard that arises as a result of the processes or operations that are characteristic of an idividual occupancy
Special Fire Hazard
Building in which there is a greater than normal likelihood of loss of life or properyt due to fire.
Target Hazard
Where are carbon monoxide detectors usually installed
In the same locations as smoke detectors
Where should smoke detectors be installed
In every bedroom and at every level of occupancy
According to title 29 code of the federal regualtion what must be made available free of charge by employers
Hep B Vaccine
In which stage of stress does your body's functions return to normal having adapted to the stimulus
Second Stage (Resistance)
During chest compressions the amount of time you spend compressing should be _____ the time for the release
The same as