Human History And Migration Patterns Essay

1855 Words Mar 3rd, 2016 8 Pages
Introduction When observing a human population there are many phenotypical differences such as; behavior, development, and morphology. Not only are there phenotypical differences amongst a human population, but there are also genotypic differences that can be observed using DNA sequencing data. One way to observe genetic variation amongst humans would be to sequence the Mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA). Mitochondrial DNA is the most commonly used DNA to form phylogenetic trees. Human Mitochondrial DNA is about 16,500 bps in size and consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs (transfer RNA), and 2 rRNAs (ribosomal RNA) (Ingman, 2001). Mitochondrial DNA has many beneficial uses for DNA sequencing such as; its ability to be extracted from small samples or degraded tissue and its ability to produce a higher rate of substitution when compared to nuclear genomes. Also, human Mitochondrial DNA is almost always inherited from an individual’s mother which allows researchers to trace maternal lineages that will provide information on human history and migration patterns (Ingman, 2001). Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms can be compared to a reference sequence which will allow scientists to determine haplotype groups. In this experiment, students collected a sample of cells via saliva and used this sample to extract DNA. From the extracted DNA, students amplified the HV1 control region of the mtDNA using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR is the process of heating and…

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