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30 Cards in this Set

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Main idea of a passage. A stated main idea is:
explicit - it is directly expressed in a sentence or two in the paragraph or passage
Main idea of a passage. An implied main idea is:
suggested by the overall reading selection. Must formulate in your own words a main idea statement.
syntax=
sentence structure
diction=
word choice
What two things are necessary to create tone?
1) syntax (sentence structure)
2) diction (word choice)
Tone may be thought of as:
positive, negative, or neutral
Name two beginning reading approaches:
1)Bottom-Up (Code Emphasis)
2)Top-Down (Meaning-Emphasis)
Bottom Up (Code Emphasis) beginning reading approach is:
1)Letter sound regularity is stressed
2)letter-sound relationships are taught and mastered before introducing new words
Name some examples of Bottom-Up (Code Emphasis) beginning reading approach:
Merrill Linguistics reading program, DISTAR Reading
Top-Down (meaning emphasis) beginning reading approach is:
1)reading for meaning is emphasized from the first stages
2)high frequency words - decoded by context,pictures,initial letters, and word configurations. Thus a letter may not have the same sound in different words throughout the story
Give some examples of Top-Down (meaning emphasis) beginning reading approach:
whole language, language experience, individualized reading programs
Name 6 Developmental reading approaches:
1 - Basal Reading
2 - Phonics Approach
3 - Linguistics Approach
4 - Whole Language Approach
5 - Language Experience Approach
6 - Individualized Reading Approach
antonyms
opposites, contrast
Name the major literary genres
allegory
ballad
drama
epic
epistle
essay
fable
legend
myth
novel
poem
romance
short story
define the literary genre allegory
a story is verse or porse with characters representing virtues and vices. 2 meaning, symbolic and literal
ex:john bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress
define literary genre ballad
story told or sung in verse and accompanied by music
ex: the rime of the ancient mariner
Define literary genre Drama
typically 5 acts
comedy, modern, or tragedy
ex: shakespeare
define literary genre epic
long poem usually of book length
ex: homer's the odyssey, illiad
define literary genre epistle
a letter that is not always meant for public distribution
ex: paul wrote epistles in the bible
define literary genre essay
limited length prose focusing on a topic propounding a definite point of view
define literary genre legend
traditional narrative popularly regarded as historically accurate but are actually a mix of fact and fiction
define literary genre myth
stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions
define literary genre poem
only requirement is rhythm
ode, sonnet, elegy, pastoral, villanelle
Piaget - Cognitive Development
Sensory motor intelligence - birth to 2

preoperational thought -2 to 7

concrete operations - 7-11

formal operations - 11-15
Kohlberg - Moral Reasoning
Preconventional Level (right and wrong)

Conventional Leve (good values)

postconventional level (defines what is right independent of groups)
maslow - hierarchy of needs
development can be influenced by how well biological, social, cognitive, and personal needs are met
Erikson - psychosocial development
stage 3 - 3-6 years Play Age - initiative vs guilt

Stage 4 - 6-12 years School age - industry vs. inferiority

Stage 5 - 13-adult Adolescence - identity vs role confusion
Skinner - Behaviorism and operant conditioning
operant conditioning
rewarding to reinforce
withholding or punishing to distinguish
bandura - modeling
can learn behaviors quickly through observation of others (people, tv, books, and verbally)
Vygotsky - constructionism
how children construct understanding of new material based on what they already know