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592 Cards in this Set

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Lower house of Russian Parliament from 1906 - 1917
Duma
Duma
Lower house of Russian Parliament 1906 - 1917
Five points in Lenin's "April Theses"
1.Overthrow / no co-operation w/ provisional government
2.Abolition of police; army and state bureaucracy
3.End Russian participation in WWI
4.Give land to peasants
5.No parliamentary democracy. Workers' 'soviets'
How did the Kornilov Affair help the Revolution?
1.Discredited Kerensy (military and people)
2.Increased Bolshevik prestige
3.Increased Bolshevik's weapons stores
Purpose: Gosplan?
Provide direction for economic development
Foreign Policy in 1920's: Soviet Union's best relationship with?
Germany
Purpose: Stalin's 1928 Five Year Plan?
Continue Lenin's New Economic Policy
Katyn Forest Massacre: significance?
Created hostility between Poles and the Soviet Union
Post WWII: what country became Communistic without Soviet intervention or assistance?
Yugoslavia
Kruschev's 1957 political manuvering stigmatized who? How?
Malenkov; Molotov; Kaganovich and Shepilov: as being an 'Anti-Party' Group
Era of Stagnation known for what (3) economic trends?
1.Increased quantity of production
2.Successful growth in 'showcase' industry (i.e. aerospace)
3.Widespread shortage - consumer goods
Nationality of Soviet foreign minister during most of the Gorbachev era:
Georgian
What did Gorbachev try to do that prompted the aborted coup in August 1991?
Reconstruct the federal union
Lenin's position on the Russian Provisional Government
Opposed as 'bourgoise'
What Soviet Republic ended its membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and became an 'associate member'?
Turkmenistan
Historical Soviet method for increasing economic growth:
Increasing outputs
Who became the Soviet People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs in 1939
Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
Became head of Soviet Foreign Affairs in 1939
Three changes made by Gorbachev:
1.Made himself President
2.Greater individual freedom in elections
3.Legalized opposition party
Three reasons for end of detente between U.S. and U.S.S.R.:
1.Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
2.U.S. humiliation over Iran hostage affair
3.Election of Ronald Reagan
Major cause for unrest in Eastern Bloc during 1980's:
Nationalism and rising ethnic identity
Significance: "Weimar Russia"
Termed after dissolution. Reflected widespread belief that a weak republic attacked from within by nationalists who wanted a return to an authoritative state
"Prague Spring"
1968: form of passive resistance to Warsaw Pact troops
Date: "Prague Spring":
1968
Why was Stalin offered the position of Secretary of the Communist Party?
Prominent Bolsheviks had rejected it
Administrator: New Economic Policy:
Bukharin
Bukharin
Administered Lenin's New Economic Policy
After 1991: dominating factor in lives of Caucasions:
Inter-ethnic conflict
Main difference between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks:
Mensheviks believed in greater degree of popular participation in government
Policy of "Official Nationality"
Ethnicity not considered: all citizens are Russian
Whose policy was 'Official Nationality'?
Czar Nicholas I
What party won a majority in first post-revolution parliamentary election?
Socialist-Revolutionary Party
Who was responsible for the aggressive policies which encouraged rapid industrialization of the Russian Empire during the 1890's?
Sergei Witte
Sergei Witte
Author of aggressive policies which produced rapid industrialization of the Russian Empire in the 1890's
Three of Kruschev's agricultural reform:
1.Massive chemical fertilization
2.Introduction of corn
3.Rapid mechanization
Peristroika
Open discussions of politics and ideas
Who introduced peristroika?
Gorbechev
Exchange rate for rubles / dollars in 1914:
2:1
Exchange rate for rubles / dollars in 1929:
1200:1
Three terms associated with Soviet dissident movement in 70's and 80's:
1.Magniuzdat
2.Refusnik
3.Samirdat
Define: Magniuzdat
Russian writers, poets / dissidents who secretly distributed their own work on audio tapes
Define: Refusenik
Russian Jews denied permission to emigrate
Define: Samirdat
Russian dissident artists who published their own work to circumvent governmental control
Define: Tamizdat
Russian dissident artists who managed to have their work published abroad despite governmental control
Who fought for a Russian port on the Baltic Sea?
Peter the Great
For a port on what body of water did Peter the Great fight?
The Baltic Sea
Three factors that contributed to Soviet realization that Cold War competition was no longer sustainable:
1.Growing deficiencies in economic performance
2.Nuclear stalemate
3.Increasing gap in high-tech competitiveness
A major reason experts did not predict the fall of the Soviet Union
Over-emphasis on politics; inattention to economics
Period in which Soviet Union achieved most impressive growth:
1930 - 1960
Popular slogan during Breshnev regime:
"Stability of Cadres"
"Stability of Cadres"
Popular slogan during Breshnev regime
Was there one dissatisfied group which led to the Russian Revolution?
No. Many different groups
Most obvious result of relaxes authority under Breshnev:
Corruption and dissent
Three reasons for the abolition of Russian serfdom:
1.Increasing danger of revolt
2.Volunteer armies superior
3.Indentured / immobile population would slow industrialization
One major difference between the U.S. worldwide system of alliances and the Warsaw Pact:
Warsaw Pact had extremely limited global power
Stalin's first priority after gaining control:
Implementing changes to agriculture and industry
After the fall, where did the Russian Republic fight a bloody, unpopular war to suppress desire for independence?
Chechnya
Significance: Chechnya
Wanted independence after fall; attacked by Russian Republic to supress
The Soviet Union first became a naval power under:
Breshnev
Who owned the land taken to create the Moldovan SSR?
Romania
What territory belonging to Romania did the USSR annex in 1940?
Bessarabia
Significance: Bessarabia
Owned by Romania; annexed by USSR in 1940 to form the Moldovan SSR
The Moldovan SSR
Formed in 1940; USSR annexes Bessarabia (owned by Romania)
Three results of Gorbachev's recreation of the Congress of People's Deputies:
1.Emergence of reform candidates
2.The fall of some party leaders
3.Free elections
Prior to 1980's, one of the most significant effects of the Five Year Plans:
Scarcity of consumer goods
Five-Year Plans: what were they; from what were they developed and what were they based on?
1.Series of centralized exercises in rapid economic development
2. Gosplan
3.Theory of Productive Forces
How many Five-Year Plans were there?
13: but the last was not completed before the fall of the USSR. Some were completed ahead of schedule and some failed and were abandoned.
When was the first Five-Year Plan and on what did it focus?
1.Stalin: 1928
2.Rapid industrialization; focused on heavy industry
Tenth Five-Year Plan
Leonid Breshnev: 1976 - 1981
Slogan: Pyatiletka of Quality and Efficiency
Difference between Stalin's and Lenin's view on Communism:
Stalin: focus on nationalistic version w/ concentrated power
Primary significance: Lenin's New Economic Policy
Called for equal distribution of all private property
Krushchev's reaction to Eisenhower's refusal to apologize for the U-2 incident:
He abruptly left the 1960 Paris Summit
How did the expansion of the Russian Empire resemble other colonial conquests in Asia and the Americas?
It imposed European institutions on indigenous systems
Two problems encountered during Russia's transition to a market system:
1.Corruption
2.Declining out-put
Post WWII, in what (3) countries did the USSR push for influence?
1.Greech
2.Iran
3.Turkey
Ultimately, what caused Alexander Kerensky's political fall?
His refusal to withdraw Russia from WWI
How old was Lenin when the Russian Revolution began?
~50
Three effects of detente in the USSR:
1.Western criticism of Soviet politics
2.Increased desire for political liberty among Russians
3.Growing resentment of police
The last country to be made a Soviet Socialist Republic:
Estonia
Three factors which caused the collapse of communism in Germany:
1.Corrupt leadership
2.Public demonstrations
3.Censorship
A truth common to Lenin and his successors regarding lack of forethought:
They implemented practical Marxism without a detailed example of a communist society to follow.
A major reason for the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan:
Growing militancy among Muslims
The first country to overthrow its commumist regime after Gorbachev discarded the Breshnev Doctrine:
Poland
Who did Stalin target first for removal from power when he succeeded Lenin?
Trotsky
A main provision of the Russian Law Code of 1649
Merged peasants and slaves into the serf class
A major Bolshevik / Lenin concept NOT included in the works of Marx:
As feudalism yielded to capitalism; capitalism will be conquered by communism
Three precepts in Marxism / Bolshivism:
1.Violence in a workers' revolution is regrettable but necessary
2.The exploited working class must rise up
3.The communism elite will direct a 'dictatorship of the proletariat'.
Why did the Communist Bloc have an easier time adapting to representative democracy and a free market than did Russia?
Communism in Russia had been based on appeals to powerful Russian nationalism
Role of women in Russian economy: post WWII to the collapse:
Many traditionally male professionals, but paid considerably less
What, essentially, terminated the Warsaw Pact?
The collapse of the Eastern Bloc in 1989
Event that prompted the formation of the Warsaw Pact:
NATO membership of Germany
Gorbachev's 1991 compromise response to independence movements in the Eastern Bloc:
Confederation known as the Treaty of Union
Most important part of Cold War armament competition:
Long-range nuclear missiles
Most negative aspect of the Cold War in the USSR:
Economic toll of maintaining the arms race
Four points of Alexander II's 'Great Reform':
1.Emancipation of serfs
2.More independent judicial system
3.Locally elected political assemblies
4.Reduced military service
Gorbachev's position under Breshnev:
First Secretary for Agriculture
Zemsivo
1864: new institution of local Russian government
Josef Stalin's occupation in 1917
Editor of "Pravda"
Andrei Sakharov
Eminant Soviet nuclear physicist; became a dissident; wrote "Reflections on Progress, Coexistence and Individual Freedom" in 1968
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Decorated WWII Red Army Soldier; arrested 1945 for criticizing Stalin; sent to labor camp. Became a writer
Relationship: Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Khruschev
A.S.'s works banned until Khruschev (Day in the Life: 1962) Exiled from Moscow in 1970; his works banned again after Khrushchev lost power
What Soviet dissident won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1970?
Alexander Solzhenitsyn (he was not allowed to leave the USSR to collect it in Stockholm)
Nobel Prize for Literature (1974)
Alexander Solzhenitsyn again
Russian writer deported in 1973 after being charged w/ treason:
Alexander Solzhenitsyn (Came to Vermont)
Relationship: Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Gorbachev:
Gorbachev restored his citizenship in 1994. Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia and called for a return to a pre-Bolshevik, autocratic government
Mikhail Trepashkin
Moscow lawyer; voluntary participant in investigation of bombings which led to the war in Chechnya. Uncovered evidence that led to the Russian government; arrested on trumped charges and imprisoned.
Vladimir Bukovsky
Former Soviet dissident / human rights activist. Imprisoned 12 years; exposed psychiatric imprisonment of political prisoners. Eventually exchanged for Chilean Communist official.
Dissident scientist who participated in Soviet Atomic Bomb project:
Andrei Sakarhov
Primary reason intellectuals rejected Soviet system after initial attraction:
Terror and purges of Stalin's regime
Why were Gorbachev's reforms fatal to him?
They reduced his own power
Three events precipitated by the end of the Cold War:
1.Peaceable separation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
2.Bloody collapse of Yugoslavia
3.Reunification of Germany
Inequitable outcome of end of Cold War re: Romania
It did not get back Moldova
A major sticking point at meeting of Ford and Breshnev in Vladivostock in 1974:
USSR's refusal to let Soviet Jews and intellectuals emigrate
Primary consideration in Russian Empire's 19th century interest in Central Asia:
Desire to control production of cotton
Lenin's vision of the Bolshevik party:
It would be an elite group of professional revolutionaries leading the masses
Stalin's chief goal post-WWII:
Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
1980's experimental modifications to Soviet command economy entailed:
introduction of some market economy strategies
Social / political reforms in Russia during the 1860's can be described as:
halfway measures that compounded class tensions
Secret disseminated dissident publication during the Breshnev era:
The Chronicle of Current Events
In Lenin's mind, his NEP could be characterized as:
a temporary compromise with capitalistic economic policies
"The Winter War"
Fought in 1939 between the USSR and Finland
Three factors which caused hyperinflation during Russian transition to a market economy:
1."Ruble Overhang" (an excess of purchasing power in households
2.Government deficits
3.Lifting of price controls
"Labor theory of value"
An element in the original Marxist ideology
A major weakness of the Soviet system until the 1980's:
Agricultural System
What were 'soviets' in the early Russian revolution?
Revolutionary workers' councils
What USSR leader achieved military parity with the U.S.?
Leonid Breshsnev
Why was the Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations?
The "Winter War" with Finland
What was the major reason Lenin wanted to destroy the tsarist system?
His brother's execution
Three major powers who dominated the Congress of Vienna:
1.Prussia
2.Britain
3.Russia
Who was the initial leader of the Mensheviks?
Julius Martov
Maxim Gorky's real name:
Alexi Peshkov
Who was Maxim Gorky?
Soviet / Russian author; developed the socialist realism literary method. Lived abroad; returned to USSR and held there.
Who was Matvei Muranov?
Railway worker; became revolutionary. Joined Bolshevik faction of Social Democratic Labor party and elected to the Duma. Used his immunity to incite revolution against provisional government; charged with high treason and exiled to Siberia for life.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev
(aka: Hirsch Apfelbaum)
Eventful revolutionary career w/ changing alliances. Was close to both Lenin and Stalin, but was eventually charged with treason and executed.
Four reasons for the "Sino-Soviet Split" that peaked in 1969:
1.Mao resentful about not being seen as 'head commie' after Stalin's death
2.Mao's belief that Khruschev was too eager to accommodate the West
3.Mao's 5-Year Plan for industrialization alarmed the USSR
4.USSR's failure to support China in the border dispute w/India.
3.
How did the USSR seek to achieve 'cultural unification'?
The resettling of ethnic Russians throughout more remote republics
How did Yeltsin's denouncement of the attempted coup against Gorbechev affect Yeltsin's political status?
Yeltsin became the commanding figure in post-Soviet politics
Albania; Hungary; Czechoslovakia and Poland: which was still independent of the USSR after 1948?
Albania
Three reforms instituted by Stalin:
1.Five-Year Plans w/economic production targets
2.Revived militarism and nationalism
3.Confiscation / nationalization of kulak properties
Probably the most important caus of low agricultural production in the USSR:
Failure to provide incentives
Khrusnev's councils established to co-ordinate the USSR's different economic regions:
Sovnarkhozes
Sovnarkhozes
Khruschev's economic councils established to manage the USSR's diverse economic regions
Kolkhozes
Large-scale collective farms in the former USSR
Large-scale collective farms in the USSR:
Kolkhozes
How did Russian peasants respond to the fall of the government in 1917?
Seized land
Three ways Stalin maintained power:
1.The Army
2.The Secret Police
3.The Communist Party
How did the serious defeats suffered by Russian soldiers during WWI affect Nicholas II's rule?
Demoralization of the army and the populace encouraged the expression of revolution.
What was a primary cause of Marxism's criticism of capitalism?
Capitalists' failure to pay wages equal to the value of the production
What treaty was never ratified by the U.S. and was, essentially, ignored by both sides?
SALT II
Tanna-Tuva
A Far-Eastern province seized by the Soviet Union during WWII. Incorporated into the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (SFSR)
What Far-Eastern province was seized by the Soviet Union during WWII and incorporated into the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Repoublic?
Tanna-Tuva
What one factor best explains the rapid growth and expansion of the dissident movement throughout the USSR and Eastern Bloc in the 1980's?
New communications technology (the internet)
Throughout what period did the USSR maintain it's Superpower status?
1945 - 1985
Soviet manufacturing traditionally stressed the production of what?
Heavy industrial goods
What factor played most heavily in the chaos, unrest and foreign invasion that preceded the first Romanov tsar in 1613?
The Russian peoples' willingness to accept autocratic rule
Who headed the KGB in 1967?
Uri Andropov
Who is Vladimir Zhirinovsky?
Super-controversial Russian politician who recommended publically that Condaleeza Rica needed to get laid. Is considered persona non grata in many political circles after much fighting and inappropriate behavior.
How did Lenin handle agricultural policies?
According to this book he allowed most agricultural decisions to be made locally.
A commonality of Lenin's NEP and Gorbachev's peristroka was:
to increase production through individual enterprise
Between 1928 and 1940, USSR's inductrial sector increased by what multiple?
X4
How did Stalin force leading Bolsheviks out of power between 1924 and 1929?
He played opposing factions against one another until their leaders were isolated.
One characterization of the Khruschev regime was:
Openness about the horror of Stalin's rule
Three ways in which the USSR attempted to expand its sphere of influence during the 1960's were:
1.Cuban Missile Crisis
2.Six Day War of 1967
3.Principle of 'peaceful co-existence'
One result of the Russian Revolution of 1905 was:
The establishment of the Duma
Most heavy manufacturing was centered in:
The Ukraine
Who was deported in 1974 for his Western publication of The Gulag Archipelago?
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Which former Warsaw Pact nation enjoyed the smoothest transition to democracy and a free market economy?
The Czech Republic
Why did Russia agree to support the government of the Republic of Georgia in 1994?
Georgia agreed to join the Commonwealth of Independent States
What republics led the way in pressing for independence from Moscow in the late 1980's?
The Baltic Republics
In practice, the Breshnev Doctrine actually meant that:
The USSR would use military force to supress any Eastern Bloc Republic's efforts to achieve change or reform.
Three ways in which the Fourteen Points responded to Russia's concerns were:
1.Offered terms for peace with removal of the Kaiser
2.Called for the removal of all foreign troops from Russia
3.Demanded open covenants
A Russian concern which was NOT addressed by the Fourteen Points was:
the possibility that the imperial agendas of Japan and Britain might be satisfied.
Why did so many Asian and African nations remain unaligned during the Cold War?
They wanted to receive aid from both the USSR and the US
The most obvious result of Gorbachev's glasnost was:
increased political dissent
Two effects of Stalin's agricultural policies between 1932 and 1934 were:
1.A 15% DECLINE in production
2.The deaths of 5 million citizens by starvation
Three contributing factors to the White defeat in the Russian Civil War:
1.Little popular support
2.No strong leadership
3.Divided ideologies
Lenin's reaction when the Bolsheviks failed to win a majority in the elections of 1917:
He dispersed the Constituent Assembly
Which former Warsaw Pact member was first to join the NATO?
East Germany (as part of a re-unified Germany)
During the mid-19th century, Czar Alexander II:
1. Freed the serfs
2. Introduced some government reforms
How did Stalin demand the Eastern Bloc nations handle approaches by socialist reformes during the 1920's?
They had to avoid alliances with them: they represented the bourgeoisie
Lithuania; Karelia; Bessarabia and Estonia in 1940: which had NOT bordered the USSR BEFORE the 1939 annexation of eastern Poland?
Lithuania
Belarus; Latvia; Ukraine and Kazakhstan: which joined the Commonwealth of Independent States?
All of them
The "Velvet Revolution"
The bloodless fall of communism in Czechoslovakia
Khruschev's most significant domestic failure was in the area of:
Agriculture
In 1991, which group became the first to secede from Yugoslavia because Communist leaders refused to establish economic and political liberalization?
The Slovenians
Which was the first group to secede from Yugoslavia?
The Slovenians
The most significant aspect of Lenin's 1922 "Testament" was:
Its pointed criticism of Stalin
Three factors that made industrializing Siberia difficult:
1.Harsh climate and landscape
2.Lack of regional labor
3.Expense of transport system
How were the peasants affected by Catherine the Great's efforts to implement her enlightened ideals?
They became increasingly subjugated
What did Gorbachev name HIS doctrine; the one that replaced the Breshnev Doctrine?
The Sinatra Doctrine
Stalin's agricultural policy resulted in:
A state-planned system without much surplus
The USSR's 1956 invasion of Hungary and the Berlin Wall were actions against what US foreign policy?
The Truman Doctrine
The USSR military had to step in to quell ethnic fighting between what two Soviet Republics in 1988?
Azerbaijan and Armenia
What form of dissidence did the 1973 publication of The Gulag Archipelago represent?
Tamizdat
Three factors which contributed to the start of the Cold War were:
1.U.S. weakness at Yalta
2.Rapid U.S. post-war military demobilization
3.Soviet desire to expand its sphere of influence
Post WWII, what Eastern Bloc nation was the first to gain substantial freedom from the USSR?
Yugoslavia
The major factor that led to the end of the Cold War was:
The low standard of living and quality of life in the USSR compared to the West
What republic was established in March 1940 by the USSR to assert their claims to Finnish lands?
Finno-Karelian Soviet Socialist
Two factors which caused the failure of Khrusnev's Virgin Lands Campaign were:
1.Mono-cultural reliance on wheat
2.Selection of nutrient-deficient tracts of soil
What did the Mensheviks believe about capitalism?
The way Marx predicted history, it would be a necessary stage in the progression of a new Russian State.
Three groups who would have opposed Gorbachev's reforms:
1.State employees
2.Communist Party officials
3.Police informers
What happened to outputs in the Soviet economy just prior to its collapse?
They declined dramatically
How did the apparatchiks and nomenklatura respond to perestroika?
They sabotaged it by hoarding
Nomenklatura
Small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union. Always Party members
What decision made by Czar Nicholas II in 1905 further weakened the Russian monarchy?
Taking personal command of the army
Three groups who would have opposed Gorbachev's reforms:
1.State employees
2.Communist Party officials
3.Police informers
What happened to outputs in the Soviet economy just prior to its collapse?
They declined dramatically
How did the apparatchiks and nomenklatura respond to perestroika?
They sabotaged it by hoarding
Nomenklatura
Small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union. Always Party members
What decision made by Czar Nicholas II in 1905 further weakened the Russian monarchy?
Taking personal command of the army
Three challenges faced by the Post-Soviet economy:
1.Increasing labor productivity
2.Increasing agricultural production
3.Modernizing industry and transportation
Post-Cold War reform included what THREE policies?
1.Glasnost
2.Uskeronie
3.Perestroika
The first Russiani leader to attempt to modernize / Westernize Russia:
Peter the Great
THREE factors which forced Nicholas II to adopt reforms:
1.a crippling general strike
2.1905 Bloody Sunday
3.losing the Russo-Japanese War
Which USSR policy was most important in escalating the Cold War?
The formaton of the Eastern Bloc
Post-collapse, which Soviet republic has the LEAST potential for industrialization?
Kazakhstan
In 1990, what was the USSR's stand on a reunified Germany?
The USSR refused to recognize a reunified Germany as a member of the European Community
The foreign policy ANNOUNCED by Khruschev after Stalin's death would supposedly rest on:
Peaceful co-existence
TWO factors which caused stagnation under Brezhnev were:
1.inability of state-owned industry to modernize and innovate
2.rural USSR could not feed cities
Leon Trotsy was
The first head of the Red Army
What was one major element of perestroika?
Greater reliance on regional and local decision-making
Historically, what was THE most pervasive characteristic of the USSR?
Centralized Planning
Stalin's IMMEDIATE response to the 1941 German invasion of the USSR was:
He went into seclusion for several days
There was a food shortage when the Bolsheviks took power in 1917. Why did it persist for several years?
Peasants had no incentive to produce under the constraints of War Communism.
Why didn't Japan and the USSR have a working peace agreement in 1986?
Since the end of WWII, the USSR had continued to occupy four of the northern Japanese islands.
In 1926 the 'United Opposition' was formed within the Communist Party. Who did it oppose?
Stalin
Two principles addopted at the 1966 23rd Party Congress led by Breshnev and Kosygin were:
1.Economic emphasis on defense and heavy industry
2.There would be no more discussion about the terrors of Stalin's rule.
The term for a large subdivision of a Soviet republic (like a province) was:
Oblast
Although the peasants had been emancipated, commune farming was found non-productive in the late 19th cantury. Why?
Most peasants lacked hereditary tenure, and so had no incentive to develop the land.
What country was the first to accept Soviet gold following the 1917 revolution?
Sweden
Why was Soviet Secret Police Chief Lavrenti Beria tried and executed in 1953?
Other Soviet leaders were threatened by his power
Who was Lavrenti Beria?
Chief of Soviet Secret Police in the late 1940's and early 50's.
With what area was Lenin's 1921 New Economic Policy primarily concerned?
Agriculture
With what country did the USSR open diplomatic relations in the 1922 Rapallo Treaty?
Germany
In the Soviet Era, what was the most powerful body WITHIN the Communist Party?
The Politburo
What was the Politburo?
The most powerful body WITHIN the Soviet Communist Party
How can the rule of Alexander III best be catacterized?
Harsh police state designed to re-establish autocracy
When did Alexander III rule?
1881 - 1884
How were Soviet foreign relations affected in the short-term by the 1967 Six Day War?
Arabs became skeptical of Soviet resolve
Three ideas that characterized the 1920's Changing Landmarks movement were:
1.The revolution had been essentially halted by the Soviet government
2.Radicalism would proceed to Empire as it had after the French Revolution
3.The Russian Revolution was fundamentally nationalistic; with Slavic roots
For how long was the Soviet 'quota-driven' command economy essentially in operation?
From 1929 to the fall
The most significant reason the 1917 Bolshevik takeover of the Winter Palace was bloodless was:
The military did not resist it.
In what year did the Bolsheviks take over the Winter Palace?
1917
What was the primary issue discussed by Kennedy and Khruschev in Vienna in 1961?
Germany and Berlin
When did Kennedy and Khruschev meet in Vienna?
1961
What was the primary focus of Stalin's FIRST Five-Year Plan?
To increase output totals
Name three issues that received significant attention at the 1967 Glassboro Summit between Lyndon Johnson and Premier Kosygin:
1.The Middle East
2.Nuclear non-proliferation
3.Vietnam
Who attended the 1967 Glassboro Summit?
LBJ and Premier Kosygin
Who was Soviet Premier in 1967
Andre Kosygin
Define: Apparatchiks
Well-compensated Senior Communist Party members holding important positions
What was the term describing the well-compensated Senior Communist Party high officials?
Apparatchiks
What sea and port made 19th century Russia's great southern trade possible?
The Black Sea; Odessa
What were the goals of the 12th Five-Year Plan launched in 1985?
Economic growth through greater productivity and higher technology
Which Five-Year Plan - launched when - FIRST suggested Soviet acknowledgment of the need for diversification away from heavy industry
The 12th; launched in 1985
Define: Smokestack Economy
The USSR's focus on heavy industry
What was the ONLY collaboration ever to occur between the Soviet government and the intelligentsia?
All-Russia Famine Relief Committe
At Potsdam, Harry Truman was not as conciliatory toward Stalin as had been FDR. Why?
He knew the atomic bomb was ready.
When did the Potsdam Conference take place and who was there?
1945; President Truman; Stalin and Winston Churchill
What educational mandate was passed by the Soviet Central Committee in 1931 and why?
Soviet schools would return to old methods; lessons and themes condemned by the Revolution. Experiments in education were considered 'leftist deviations'.
Who was the first top Soviet leader to visit the US?
Khruschev
Two factors which contributed to the overall failure of the revolutionary movement of 1905 were:
1.Revolutionaries were split over the issue of the Duma
2.Loyalist forces returned from the Far East
Why were Gorbachev's early reforms slow to take place?
He needed time to consolidate his own power within the party
Estonia; Ukrania; Uzbek and Georgia: which was included in the ORIGINAL USSR established in 1922?
The Ukranian Republic
Who was elected President of the Russian Republic in 1990 and what did he promise?
Boris Yeltsin. That he would create a market economy in 500 days.
Greece; Bulgaria; Romania or Serbia: which did NOT declare war on the Ottoman Empire in 1912?
Romania
What percent of the total USSR population was killed during WWII?
12%
Where is Russian history considered to have begun?
Along the northern shore of the Black Sea and in the steppe beyond.
Who was named president of the USSR by the Supreme Soviet on July 2, 1985?
Andri Gromyko
The MAIN difference between the 1924 Constitution and Stalin's of 1936 was:
Stalin explicitly outlawed all parties except for the Communist.
What part was economic reform ORIGINALLY to have played in Gorbachev's entire reform program?
Originally, 'economic reform' was an 'umbrella phrase'. Later, Gorbachev's entire program was referred to as 'economic'.
Economic; Social; Governmental or Cultural: which structures evolved most slowly in Russia from the turn of the century?
Government
In retrospect, how can Khruschev's 1954 'Virgin Lands' program best be described?
Temporary relief from an agricultural crisis that offered no permanent solutions to the problems of productivity.
Who was reponsible for the 1954 'Virgin Lands' program?
Khruschev
Moldova; Armenia; Estonia or Kirghizstan: which did NOT become a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States?
Estonia
How did the Chinese feel about Khruschev's conduct at the 1956 20th Party Congress?
They were disgusted
A Turkic minority with the Soviet Union was:
the Karachai
Who founded the socialist Revolutionary Party in 1902?
Non-Marxist dissidents committed to peasant revolution
What about the March 1989 Soviet elections was surprising to Gorbachev and other leaders?
The Communist Party did not do as well as expected
Approximately what percent of the Soviet population starved in the 1921 famine?
20%
How was the Soviet's 1956 invasion of Hungary received by the international community?
It was not protested strongly. Most governments were preoccupied with the invasion of the Suez Canal.
Where did the March 1917 Revolution begin?
Petrograd
Stalin had a non-aggression pact with Hitler. How did he justify it to the Soviet people in 1941 after the German invasion began?
He said he had bought time to build defenses
In the August 1991 attempted coup against Gorbachev there was a decisive moment when it became obvious it would fail. What was it?
The Soviet military forces stopped their movement toward parliament.
When did an attempted coup take place against Gorbachev?
1991
What was the outcome of the 1991 coup attempt against Gorvachev?
It failed when the military failed to support it.
Who was Sergei Witte?
Prime Minister under Nicholas II
What did Sergei Witte attempt to do?
Attract liberals and moderates to cabinet posts
Why did Prime Minister Sergei Witte's efforts to attract liberals and moderates to his cabinet fail?
Liberal and moderates would not support the czar in his continued attempts to crush the revolutionary movement.
In what decade did the USSR achieve nuclear parity with the U.S.?
The 1960's
Name four groups who belonged to the 'White' forces during the Russian Civil War?
1.Monarchists
2.Liberals
3.Conservatives
4.Mensheviks
When did the Russian Civil War begin?
1918
What was unusual about the groups forming the 'White' forces in the Russian Civil War?
They were very disparite. Monarchists; Liberals; Conservatives and Mensheviks
What right-wing group of parliamentary deputies did Lt. Colonel Viktor Alksnis head in the early 1990's?
The Soyuz
Define: Soyuz
The right-wing group of parliamentary deputies headed by Lt. Colonel Viktor Alksnis in the early 1990's which exerted influence over Gorbachev.
Over whom did the Soyuz exert influence?
Gorbachev
Who headed the 'White' forces in the Russian Civil War which began in 1918?
General Alexander Kolchak
Where did the White forces gather at the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918?
Siberia
Who was General Alexander Kolchak?
Head of the White forces in the Russian Civil War which began in 1918.
Between the failed 1991 coup against Gorbachev and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, how many former Soviet republics declared their independence?
15
The 1921 Treaty of Riga provided for what?
Poland was granted control of border regions in the Ukraine and Belorussia.
In what year was the Treaty of Riga signed?
1921
What was the focus of Stalin's third Five Year Plan?
Development of defense industries
Russia; Georgia; Ukraine or Belorussia: which was NOT considered one of the USSR's SLAVIC republics?
Georgia
Which was the first Soviet republic to declare its independence?
Lithuania
During the first months of Gorbachev's leadership, what officials did he target for retirement?
Brezhnev 'hold-overs'
Russia had two initial high-priority goals upon entering WWI in 1914. What were they?
1.Fulfill its defense obligations to France
2.Block German and Austrian ambitions in the Balkans
The leaders of the failed 1991 coup against the Gorbachev government made many mistakes. Which was biggest?
Failing to arrest or silence Boris Yeltsin
Kamenev; Zinoviev; Trotsky or Stalin: who was NOT a member of the 'triumvarate' elected by the 13th Party Congress to assume the leadership of Lenin?
Trotsky
What did Khruschev advocate that caused him to assume power after Stalin's death?
A return to heavy industry and increasing the military
Who succeeded Stalin?
Khruschev
What group was most important in Lenin's New Economic Policy?
The peasants
What stand did most reformers in Gorbachev's government take regarding the Soviet republics?
They advocated increased republican autonomy.
What group is considered to be the earliest ruler os southern Russia?
The Scythians
Who were the Scythians?
Considered to be the earliest rulers of southern Russia
What was the purpose of the 'secret additional protocol' of the 1939 non-aggression treaty between Germany and the USSR?
The agreement to divide up Eastern Europe after the war.
By what name was the secret agreement made between Stalin and Hitler to divide up Eastern Europe known?
The 'secret additional protocol'. It was part of the 1939 Non-aggression Pact between the two countries.
Three factors in the 1920 victory of the Bolsheviks over the White forces were:
1.Control of the railways
2.Whites lost support due to refusal to adopt land reforms
3.Bolsheviks created a better army.
How long did the Russian Civil War last?
1918 - 1920
What event postponed the US Senate's ratification of the first international Non-Proliferation Treaty?
Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
How did Lenin get back into Russia from exile in Switzerland?
He was helped by the Germans who wanted the Russians weakened by internal strife.
How long was Lenin in exile in Switzerland?
10 years: from 1907 - 1917
In what year was the Berlin Wall built?
1961
When was 'Bloody Sunday'?
1905
What was Nicholas II's response to Bloody Sunday of 1905?
He instituted a system of consultative representation
What was the result of Nicholas II's system of consultative representation?
Increased dissidence and demands by protesters.
Who ruled Russia when 'Bloody Sunday' occurred?
Nicholas II
What NON-POLITICAL event marked a turning point in Gorbachev's glasnost campaign by clearly demonstrating the need for the free exchange of information?
The Chernobyl Disaster
What was the political significance of the Chernobyl Disaster?
It clearly demonstrated the need for the free exchange of information (glasnost)
Three concessions were made to the USSR after Japan's surrender to the US. What were they?
1.The USSR would occupy Manchuria
2.The USSR would occupy all of Sakhalin Island
3.The USSR would occupy the Kuril Islands
RE: the status of Japan after its surrender to the U.S.: what was the USSR DENIED?
Any role in the administration of post-war Japan.
The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in 1990. Who applied - and were denied - observation status on four separate occasions?
The Balkan States
What was the PRIMARY motivation for the murder of Czar Nicholas II and his family by the Communists in July 1918?
White Army forces were nearby and it was feared they would rally around the Czar.
What Czar and his family were murdered by Communists -and when?
Czar Nicholas II; his wife and children. In July, 1918.
Poland; East Germany; Bulgaria or Romania: which nation did NOT send troops to aid in the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the USSR?
Romania
Name three nations who sent troops to aid the USSR in its 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia?
East Germany; Bulgaria and Poland.
Describe the basic principle on which Soviet FOREIGN policy was structured during the era of Lenin's New Economic Policy?
Capitalism and Socialism could not co-exist peacefully.
What was the clearest cause of the severe societal and economic stagnation during the end of the Brezhnev era?
Aging members of the Politburo refused to resign or retire.
Name three factors which generally discouraged 19th century revolutionary movements in Russia.
1.Lack of organization
2.Inattention to ethnic (non-Russians) oppression under czarism
3.Factionalism / lack of co-operation
What did Gorbachev stress as top Soviet priorites when accepting his 1985 nomination for general secretatary?
1.Economic revitalization
2.Arms control
After Potsdam, where did the Allies seem to be inevitably headed regarding Germany?
Partition
How did Grobachev unwittingly help Yeltsin emerge as a competitor for power?
By 'leaning' to the right in his own policies to accommodate conservatives.
Who controlled the banks under Lenin's New Economic Policy?
The State
What effect on parts of Eastern Europe did Khruschev's 'secret speech' of February 1956 have?
There occurred a breakdown in Soviet control
Name three groups of revolutionary intellectuals who gained prominence in Russia during the 1840's:
1.Westerners
2.Slavophiles
3.Petrashevskists
The last city attacked by Germany in WWII was:
Kursk
When did the last German offensive against Russia occur?
1943
One of Stalin's quotas for his first Five-Year Plan was met in advance of the deadline. It was:
The Employment Index
Which Soviet governmental organization made sweeping constitutional changes in 1990 under pressure from Gorbachev?
The Central Committee
In what year did the Soviet Central Committee make sweeping constitutional changes, including instituting popular election for Soviet head-of-state?
1990
Who pressured the Soviet Central Committee to make sweeping constitutional changes - including election of the Soviet head-of-state by popular election - in 1990?
Gorbachev
FDR and Churchill accepted very vague promises from Stalin at Yalta in regard to establishing democratic elections in Eastern Europe. Why?
They knew the only way to remove the Soviets from these areas would be by direct confrontation (another war)
When was the Yalta Conference and who attended?
1945. Stalin, FDR and Churchill.
The same Russian ruler to openly discuss the issues of 'serfdom' also instituted it in the Ukraine. Who?
Catherine the Great
What was Yuri Andropov's highest foreign affairs priority?
Preventing NATO from deploying Pershing missiles throughout Western Europe
Who led the RIGHT faction of the Communist Party after Lenin's death?
Bukarin
Which country was the LAST to recognize the independence of the Baltic States from the former USSR?
The U.S.
Stalingrad; Leningrad; MOscow or Kiev: which was captured by the Germans during WWII?
Kiev
What was the main source of hard currency for the Soviet economy throughout most of the 1980's?
Oil experts
What term describes post-emancipated serfs who were tied to the village commune and the landlord's estate, but paid their dues to their owner?
Obrok
Define: Obrok
Post-emancipated serfs who were tied to the village commune and the landlord's estate but paid their dues to their owner.
Hungary; Austria Albania or Syria: which was NOT occupied by the Red Army when WWII ended in Europe?
Syria
The purpose of the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine was:
Block Communist expansion in the Middle East
What U.S. doctrine pledged to block expansion of communism in the Middle East?
The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957
After the October Revolution, how did Lenin center his efforts to bring all of Russia under Bolshevik control?
Taking control of the local soviets
What Eastern European country had a democratic government prior to WWII?
Czechoslovakia
What happened in 1929 that left Stalin unchallenged for power?
Trotsky was banished from the Soviet Union
What effect did Trotsy's 1929 banishment from the Soviet Union have on Stalin?
It rendered his power unchallenged.
How did the USSR INITIALLY react when - in the 60's - they realized the US was escalating involvment in Vietnam
They urged the North Vietnamese to negotiate an end to the conflict
Who took power after Gorbachev was overthrown in 1991?
Gennady Yanayev
Who is Gennady Yanayev?
Gorbachev's successor
When was Gorbachev overthrown?
August 1991
What three factors caused Moscow to rise from it's status as a minor city to the predominant political principality in the years after the Mongol conquest?
1.Territorial expansion by Moscow princes
2.The seat of the metropolitan of the Russian Church was moved there
3.Political manuverings of Ivan I.
Three desires concerning the USSR expressed by FDR and Churchill at Yalta in 1945 were:
1.Soviet participation against Japan
2.An agreement concerning occupied Germany
3.Soviet guarantees of free elections in Eastern Europe
What was the first act - in 1917 - by the Bolsheviks which demonstrated their repudiation of democratic principles?
They disbanded the first elected Constituent Assembly
What event caused the Soviet people to come closest to losing their resolve to fight against the German invasion during WWII?
When their leaders fled Moscow
After the dissolution of the USSR, what former satellite did NOT ban the Communist party?
Uzbekistan
What purpose did 'shock workers' serve in Stalin's 2nd Five-Year Plan?
Raise production quotas
In 1952, at the 19th Communist Party Congress, the Politburo was transformed into another organization known as:
The Presidium
What was the most significant reason the student-sponsored revolutionary movement of the 1870's failed?
The students went directly to the peasants, who did not trust them.
Why was Hitler unable to carry out his plan for a quick conquest when he invaded the USSR?
Problems maintaining supply lines.
Three countries on which the Soviet Comintern focused its efforts during the 1920's were:
China; Great Britain and Germany
Three minority groups affected by Stalin's ethnic deportations in the 1940's were:
Mongols; Turks and Caucasians
Who was the initial leader of the Provisional Government established after the March Revolution of 1917?
Prince Georgii Lvov
Who was Prince Georgii Lvov?
The initial leader of the Provisional Government which followed the March 1917 revolution.
There was one former Soviet Republic that was considered key to getting the remainder to join a confederacy in 1991. Which was it?
The Ukraine
What was the outcome of the Second General Purge conducted by the Communist Party in 1929?
High officials fled
Define: 'Communist Bourgeoisie':
A 'sub-class' of conspicuous consumers who reached their peak during the Breshnev government.
Three demands made by strikers during the Revolution of 1905 were:
1.A constituent assembly
2.Freedom of press, speech and assembly
3.An 8-hour work-day
Three conditions outlined by U.S. Secretary of State George Schultz in 1982 which had to be met by the USSR for better East-West relationships were:
1.North Vietnamese withdrawal from Cambodia
2.Relaxed tensions in Poland
3.Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
How did Stalin view the Communist Party in the 1920's?
As a conquering army in an occupied country
An important difference in the foreign policies of Khruschev and those of Lenin and Stalin was that:
Khruschev recognized the concept of neutrality
Define: Supreme Soviet
The elite legislative branch of the Soviet government
Which Soviet Republic actually REJECTED declarations of sovreignty in 1990 of the Abkhaz Autonomous Republic and the South Ossetian Autonomous Region?
Georgia
What was the FIRST declaration of war between 1913 and 1914?
Serbia and Bulgaria declared war on each other.
Approx. what percentage of Leningrad's population died during the German siege of 1941 - 1944?
50%
What 1921 event is considered the climax of the post-civil war anti-Bolshevik unrest?
The Kronstadt Rebellion
Three issues on the agenda of the 1955 Geneva Summit were:
1.German re-unification
2.Improvement of East-West relations
3.European security
What was the clearest accomplishment of Stalin's first Five-Year Plan?
The completion of several large industrial projects
The purpose of hte 1968 Brezhnev Doctrine was:
To justify Soviet interference in the affairs of other Communist States.
In what year were Russian peasants emancipated?
1861
The cause of renewed tension between the U.S. and the USSR in the mid 60's was due to:
U.S. escalation of involvement in Vietnam
Three factors which caused the Allies to advodate the overthrow of the Bolsheviks after WWI were:
1.Bolshevik's ambitions for Eastern European territories
2.Anti-capitalistic propaganda
3.Bolsheviks' disavowal of previous foreign debt
Which republic was added to the USSR in 1929?
Turkemenistan
Which Soviet Socialist Republics was created by Stalin from land seized from Romania?
Moldavia
What organization was considered the ideologic 'nerve center' of the Communist Party after WWII?
Agitprop
Define: Agitprop
The ideological 'nerve center' of the Communist Party following WWII
Three factors which helped the Bolsheviks' ability to remain in power after the October Revolution were:
1.Totalitarianism which prevented dissent
2.Appropriation of the popular policies of their former adversaries
3.Superior organization
What was the turning point of the German invasion of the USSR; after which the Germans were mostly in retreat?
The Battle of Stalingrad
How did Lenin's New Economic Policy affect Communist Party Membership?
Members became disillusioned with the leaders, who they felt were alienated from Communistic ideals.
Czechoslovakia; Bulgaria; Romania and Yugoslavia: which of these had genuine friendships with the USSR immediately following WWII?
All but Romania, who lost territory which became Moldavia
How did Stalin rally the Russian people when the Germans invaded in WWII?
He appealed to strong Russian nationalism and loosened his constraints on the Eastern Church
Define: Decembrists
Aristotic advocates of a constitutional m onarchy who attempted to seize power after the death of Alexander I.
What group of aristrocrats tried to seize power to implement a constitutional monarchy after the death of Alexander I?
The Decembrists
Why did Stalin do nothing to relieve those suffering from famine in 1932 - 33?
He believed the famine to be a political weapon which would break the will of the peasants.
Define: Nepmen
A class of capitalists created by Lenin's New Economic Policy
What type of economic activity were the Nepmen primarily engaged in?
Speculation
The class of capitalists created by Lenin's New Economic Policy was:
The Nepmen
What allowed the Soviets to concentrate their troops along the European front, against Germany in WWII?
A non-aggression pact with Japan
Why did the Bolsheviks move the capital to Moscow in 1918?
It was more defensible - against foreign military or counter-revolutionary attacks.
Why was the May 1960 Soviet-American Summit canceled?
The U-2 incident
What group embraced the 'Changing Landmarks' movement of the 1920's?
Right-wing conservatives in the Russian intelligentsia
What 1920's movement was supported by right-wing conservatives in the Russian intelligentsia?
The Changing Landmarks movement.
Who was Makarenko?
Soviet educational expert who believed that the army and the labor colony provided the model context for teaching children.
What changes were made to Soviet education just prior to WWII?
Makarenko's theories were adopted - the belief that the army and labor camp provided the model context for teaching children.
What event most specifically brought an end to detente between the U.S. and the USSR?
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Three characteristics of the Russian economy from 1880- 1900 are:
1.Rapid expansion of railroads
2.Moderate reforms in labor laws
3.Influx of foreign capital
At the time of the fall of the USSR, which republican capitol city had the LOWEST percentage of ethnic Russians in its population?
Yerevan, Armenia
What percentage of the USSR's wholesale trade was conducted by the state under the New Economic Policy?
75%
What affect did the 1943 discovery of secret grave sites at Katyn, near Smolensk have?
The discovery aggravated the hostilities between Poles and Russians: who were supposed to be allies against Germany.
What agency, founded in 1921, was responsible for plotting the economic course of the USSR?
Gosplan
Bulgaria; Yugoslavia; Hungary or Czechoslovakia: which was NOT a member of the Warsaw Pact?
Czechoslovakia
Pakistan; Turkey; Lebanon or Iran: which was NOT a member of the Central Treaty Organization?
Lebanon
What excuse did Stalin offer for his 1930 temporary abandonment from his policy of collectivism?
He blamed its failure on local party activists
What was the most SIGNIFICANT effect of the 'tax in kind' provision of the New Economic Policy regarding agriculture?
It limited arbitrary action by the state regarding the disposition of agricultural surpluses
What 5th zone of 'to-be-occupied' Germany was tacitly added at the Potsdam Conference of 1945?
The Polish Zone (#5)
Which of the many bad decisions made by the post-revolution Provisional Government contributed the most to its downfall?
It's determination to continue the war effort, despite the peoples' objections.
What early setback did the post-WWII Comintern suffer?
Tito's break with Moscow
What was the most obvious way in which Stalin's Five-Year Plans eventually differed from the tenets of Bolshevikism?
His use of material incentives to stimulate production.
In the late 19th century, which two ethnic groups were significantly united in religious commonality which seemed to set limits on the hostility between the two?
Russians and Ukrainians
What was the driving force behind the failed 1991 coup against Gorbachev's government?
Right-wing conservatives who did not want to see the end of the Union.
The power struggle AMONG Bolsheviks during the era of the New Economic Policy was essentially a struggle between who?
Ideologic ideal party loyalists and loyalists to the top party leaders.
From where did the Kremlin withdraw military forces in 1955?
Austria
What were Stalin's goals in his first Five-Year Plan and how did he plan to pay for them?
Industrial projects financed through agricultural production
Under perestroika, how was the long-term acceleration of social and economic development to be accomplished?
Through technological modernization
Define: raion
The adminstrative area equivalent to a city district of a Soviet republic.
Term for the administrative area equivalent to a city district in a Soviet Republic:
Raion
Which member of the Council of People's Commissars was assigned responsibility for handling the desires and complaints of national minority groups?
Stalin
What was the Council of People's Commissars and when was it established?
The highest ruling body of the country, established after the Bolsheviks seized power in 1917.
What body was established in 1917 as the highest ruling body of the country?
The Council of People's Commissars
The EARLY Romanovs were responsible for what significant advancement in foreign relations?
Continued westward expansion into the area now known as the Ukraine.
In general, why did Gorbachev begin to lose power in the late 1980's?
The legislature he created was gaining influence.
The industrial portion of the New Economic Policy adversely affected the:
Employment rate
Why was the Chinese territory of Manchuria so important to the Soviets during the late 1930's?
It contained the railway to Vladivostok
Significance: Vladivostok
The city reached most easily by the railway through the Chinese territory of Manchuria.
Three terms proposed by the British and agreed to by the Soviets for the lifting of the Allied blockade of the USSR in 1920:
1.Repatriation of POW's
2.End to propaganda warfare
3.Recognition in principle to the concept of debts owed to private individuals
A reform-minded Czech Party Secretary who advocated the development of democratic socialism in the 1960's was:
Alexander Dubcek
Who was Alexander Dubcek?
A reform-minded Party Secretary in Czechoslovakia who advocated the development of democratic socialism in the 1960's.
What was the downfall of the first two Soviet Dumas (1906 - 1907)?
They were too liberal to co-operate with the government and were quickly dissolved.
Georgia; Belorussia; Azerbaijan or the Ukraine: which was among the LAST to join the Commonwealth of Independent States?
Azerbaijan
What group of Soviet citizens was the poorest during the New Economic Policy?
The workers
Brezhnev's two TOP economic priorities after assuming power were:
The military and agriculture
Three elements of 'War Communism' adopted in 1918 were:
1.To outlaw strikes
2.To repudiate the czar's foreign debt
3.To eliminate markets
Where and when was the very first Russian 'soviet' formed?
In St. Petersburg in 1905 during the October strike.
In what organization did the Russian Social Democratic movement of the 19th century have its roots - and who founded it?
The Osvobashdenie truda (Liberation of Labor) founded by George Plekhanov
Who was George Plekhanov?
Founder of the Osvobashdenie truda (Liberation of Labor) - which became the Russian Social Democratic movement of hte 19th century.
Define: Osvobashdenie truda
Liberation of Labor; founded by George Plekhanov. It formed the basis for the 19th century Russian Social Democratic movement.
The moderate faction of what group formed in 1965, in the Afghan government lost control just prior to the 1979 Soviet invasion of that country?
The moderate faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, known as the Parcham.
Define: Parcham
The moderate faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan which lost control of the government just prior to the 1979 Soviet invasion.
Two elements of the 1928 Soviet marriage code were:
1.Either party could dissolve without even notifying the other
2.The concept of 'illegitimacy' was abolished.
The broad concept of Soviet foreign relations which stemmed from WWII was:
A desire for security attained by military superiority and resolve to fight offensive wars on enemy soil.
By what name were the direct popular ballots of the late 80's and early 90's in which Soviet republics decided such issues as independence?
Plebiscites
Define: Plebiscites
The direct popular ballots of the late 80's and early 90's in which Soviet citizens of the Soviet republics decided such issues as independence.
Which side did the USSR support during the 1971 war between India and Pakistan?
India
What country supported Pakistan during the 1971 India/ Pakistan War?
China
At the 1943 Tehran Conference, what was Stalin's most important issue?
The establishment of a Western European front.
Where was the 1943 conference between FDR, Stalin and Churchill held?
Tehran
In what two countries did the Communist party suffer setbacks in 1956?
Poland and Hungary
Three elements of the INDUSTRIAL portion of the New Economic Policy were:
1.Foreigners could lease factories
2.Labor camps would be self-financing
3.Some authorization for small businesses
"Cold and empirical" describes the dramatic change Russian history underwent between 1934 and 1936. Who was responsible?
Stalin
Two concerns of Peter the Great were:
1.Fighting Sweden for the Baltic territories
2.Modernizing and Westernizing the country
Early in his administration, the strongest resistance to Gorbachev's reforms came from:
Low-level bureaucrats
How did proponents of the 'changing landmarks' movement of the 1920's view the New Economic Policy?
As the inevitable decline of Bolshevikism
Throughout the Soviet era, the Plenum of the CPSU's Central Committee was held at least:
Twice
After the Bolsheviks seized power, legislative authority was primarily through:
The Council of People's Commissars and the Council of Workers' and Peasants' Defense
What did Article 6 of the Soviet Constitution guarantee?
The Communist's party's leading role in society
In what year was the Article of the Soviet constitution guaranteeing the supremecy of the Communist Party first revoked?
1990
The most significant flaw in STALIN'S first Five-Year Plan was:
Insufficient raw resources to keep pace with mandated enterprises
Why didn't the USSR veto the 1950 UN resolution condeming the North Korean invasion, in which it also authorized military intervention because:
The USSR was boycotting the UN Security Council over the exclusion of Communist China
What new legislative body did Gorbachev create in 1988?
Congress of People's Deputies
Congress of People's Deputies
Legislative body created by Gorbachev in 1988.
What was the primary focus of US Senate debate over granting the USSR most-favored-nation status in 1972?
Soviet emigration policies toward Jews
What was the primary cause for the strain in relations between Stalin and Bukarin in the late 1920's?
Food supply policies
What portion of Gorbachev's reforms influenced the way the USSR thought about defense?
'New thinking' (novoe myshlenie)
Significance: 'New Thinking' (novoe myshlenie)
The Gorbachev policy which changed the way the USSR thought about defense.
How did most pragmatic Communists view Lenin's New Economic Policy?
An evil necessary to stay in power.
Who was thought to be Stalin's successor immediately after WWII?
A.A. Zhdanov
Who was A.A. Zhdanov?
Immediatly after WWII, he was considered most likely to replace Stalin.
How did the rapid rate of industrialization change the composition of the population in Russian cities at the turn of the century?
It produced a rapidly growing proletariat (worker) class
Industrialists in which Russian city gained most from the WWI effort?
Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
During the implementation of collectivism under Stalin, what group was initially involved?
The poorest peasants
What is the best reason Konstantin Chernenko was chosen to succeed Andropov after Andropov's death?
He was viewed as someone who would function as a stable, transitional leader
What were the three parts of the Transcaucasian Republic?
1.Georgia
2.Azerbaijan
3.Armenia
In what year was the Transcaucasian Republic broken into its component parts?
1929
On what did Stalin base his argument for a dominant Soviet role in post-war Europe at the Yalta Summit?
The Soviets had sustained horrendous losses at the hands of the Germans long before the Allies ever established the European front.
Which one of the Soviet satellites publically criticized the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia?
Yugoslavia
In general, how did Communist China view the USSR under Khruschev?
as having betrayed the socialist principles under which both countries had been founded.
Italy; China; France or Austria: which was the LAST to recognize the USSR in 1924?
France
What party won a majority in the Constitutional Assembly elected after the October Revolution of 1917?
The Socialist Revolutionaries
Aside from the fact that Gorbachev's reforms diminished his own powers, what was the general paradox that came to be associated with perestroika?
Prosperity required changes, but the peoples' willingness to accept change depended on a better standard of living.
What event sparked the 1934 'Great Terror'?
The Kirov Assassination
What was the most important domestic aspect of Khruschev's 'de-Stalinization' process?
Repudiation of terror
What party, created in 1905 were composed mostly of liberals from the rising professional class?
The Kadets
From what group did most of the member of the Kadet party come?
Liberals from the rising professional class.
Throughout the 1920's, what was the poorest and weakest of the Soviet Republics?
Azerbaijan
What dubious distinction did Azerbaijan maintain throughout the 1920's?
It was the poorest and weakest of the Soviet Republics.
What was the great hypocrisy of Soviet foreign policy during the 1920's and the 1930's?
While supposedly working for the demise of capitalism, Moscow actively courted foreign investment in the Five-Year Plans.
In 1989, what group of workers was responsible for the greatest labor unrest in the USSR since the 1920's?
The coal miners who struck nationwide to express their opposition to the government.
During Stalin's dekulakization, approximately how many poor peasants were deported for every kulak?
3
What aspect of Khruschev's domestic agenda served the most to damage his standing among other Soviet leaders?
His reorganization of the government into a bifurcated structure
How did Khruschev's bifurcation of the governmental structure affect his standing among other Soviet leaders?
It was significantly damaged.
In the late Brezhnev era, what group of citizens were most alienated from Soviet society?
Soviet youth
According to the Chinese, there were three obstacles to normalized Sino-Soviet relations in the 1980's. What were they?
1.Soviet occupation of Afghanistan
2.North Vietnamese presence in Cambodia
3.Soviet troops along the Russian - Chinese border.
What was the primary method Stalin used to stimulate enthusiasm for his first Five-Year Plan?
He published projected control figures
In 1986, the only dramatic changes undertaken by the Gorbachev administration had been in the area of:
Personnel. He pushed old-line Brezhnev hold-overs into retirement.
What issue was primarily responsible for the falling out between Lenin and Stalinin the early 1920's?
The autonomy of the other Soviet republics
Kalmyks; Chechens; Balkars; or Tatars: which was a Caucasian minority within the USSR?
The Chechens
Three factors which influenced Stalin's policies toward the Hitler regime in the 1930's were:
1.Fear that if Communism took hold there, it would be a more successful state
2.The conviction that the Nazis were nationalists opposed to the Versaille system
3.Hatred of Social Democrats
In 1946, from which nation did the USSR withdraw it's troops under heavy pressure from the West?
Iran
Who is considered to be the Father of Russian Marxism?
Plekhanov
What is Plekhanov known as?
The Father of Russian Marxism
In 1990, why did the Soviet Foreign Minister resign his government post?
He feared that a dictatorship was about to be put into place
The initial motivation for Stalin's collectivism in the late 1920's was:
Increased agricultural production
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev met in 1979. Who would be the next pair of leaders to meet?
Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev
From the first day of the 1917 Revolution, who did Lenin perceive as the enemy of the proletariat?
The intelligentsia
Armenia; Azerbaijan; Kazakhstan or Ukraine: which republic did NOT participate in the 1991 referendum to determine whether the USSR should be preserved as a renewed federation of equal soverrrrreign republics?
Armenia
What was the outcome of the 1825 Decembrist revolt?
A new era of repression under a new emperor
Significance: 1943 Battle of Kursk between Germans and Soviets
It dispelled the myth that the Germans were invincible in warm weather
What was the only real difference between the Russian famine of 1932-33 and the famine of 1921-22?
The later famine killed more people
What direct concession did FDR and Churchill make to Stalin at Yalta in 1945?
Soviet annexation of parts of eastern Poland
The main cause of the 1921 famine was:
Lenin's policy for requisitioning grain surpluses
Which sector of the economy benefitted from Stalin's fourth Five-Year Plan (1946 - 51)?
Heavy industry
Who actually planned and executed the coup that brought down the government in the October Revolution of 1917?
Trotsky
Why did Japan suddenly halt it's 1939 attack on Mongolia?
Germany and Russia had signed a non-aggression pact: and Japan was aligned w/ Germany
Lithuania; Finland; Latvia or the Ukraine: which was NOT an independent republic after the Bolsheviks won the Russian Civil War?
The Ukraine
Immediately after Khruschev's demise, what was the Brezhnev government's focus?
Establishing stability and order
What area did Hitler plan to finally capture when he launched the 1942 attack on the Soviet Union?
Southern industrial areas and eventually the Caucasus
What did Gorbachev announce to the 1989 Council of Europe?
That the USSR would NOT interfere in the reform movements in Eastern European countries.
In all of Russia's troubled history, what does the 'Time of Troubles' actually refer to?
The death of Boris Godunov and the assenssion of the first Romanov czar.
The 28th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1990 was the turning point in the power struggle between which two Soviet leaders?
Gorbachev and Yeltsin
After the Cheka was dissolved in 1922, its functions were absorbed by what organization?
GPU
What did Gorbachev's EARLY definition of glasnost entail?
Exposing waste and abuse in the state bureaucracy
Three elements of the 1971 Four Powers Agreement concerning the administration of Berlin were:
1.All pledged NOT to try and change the status of the city
2.The Soviets pledged to refrain from communication and transportation INTO West Berlin
3.West Berliners would be allowed to travel on West German passports and receive West German consular protection abroad.
What was an important agreement NOT achieved during the 1971 Four Powers Agreement concerning the administration of Berlin?
The Soviets did not recognize West Berlin as part of West Germany.
In Lenin's April Theses of 1917, what did he urge the Bolsheviks to do?
Transfer power to the Soviets
Gorbachev's 1991 shift to the right - to pacify other Soviet leaders - resulted in what military action?
Soviet crack-down on unrest in the Baltic States
Two primary reasons for the first Five-Year plan, begun in the 1920's, were:
1.The belief that industry had recieved inadequate attention and resources from Lenin
2.The fear that private enterprise was gaining a foothold in Soviet society.
Three parts of the Central Committe's 1987 economic plans were:
1.Self-financing of commercial enterprises
2.Decentralization of economic decision-making
3.Increased Soviet presence in the international economy
How did Alexander III primarily fund his industrialization expansion?
Foreign investments
In 1953, the Ministry of State Security (the political police) became whatt reorganized agency?
The MVD: the Ministry of INternal Affairs
Stalin's 1936 constitution actually guaranteed civil rights - to work; to rest; to vote and receive medical care - to whom?
All Soviet citizens, regardless of gender, ethnicity or religion.
What was the status of USSR / Red China relations at the end of Khruschev's regime?
Very bitter and getting worse
What was the status of USSR / US relations at the end of Khruschev's regime?
Slowly improving
During the Russian Civil War from 1918 - 1920, what were three countries that garrisoned troops on Russian soil?
Japan, Great Britain and Italy
What organization was formed in 1918 to indoctrinate Soviet youth?
Komsomol
Significance: Komsomol
The organization founded in 1918 to indoctrinate Soviet youth
What was the primary purpose of the 'show trials' undertaken by Stalin in the 1930's?
To eliminate his political enemies.
What was the primary reason for the USSR's investment in the Vietnam conflict?
To worsen relations between Red China and the U.S.
Three immediate results of Alexander III's emancipation of the serfs were:
1.They were organized into communes
2.They were required to pay annual redemption dues to their former noble owners
3.They acquired about 2/3 of the land they originally worked
Significance: the sham discovery of the 1952 - 53 Doctor's Plot:
The USSR broke off diplomatic relations with Israel
Where did the FIRST serious Soviet / Japanese clash occur in the late 1930's?
Lake Khasan, south of Vladivostok
In the EARLY years of perestroka, public suport for the process focused on:
Exposing the abuses and corruptions of the previous system
What was the most important factor which contributed to the weakness of the Provisional Government established after the March 1917 Revolution?
Sharing power with the Soviets
Which was the LAST Soviet territory to be liberated from German control during WWII?
The Ukraine
Two results of the implementation of War Communism in 1918 were:
1.A violent struggle between the new regime and the peasants
2.Strikes by urban workers
In 1939, the League of Nations formally condemned the USSR for aggression against:
Finland
What was the reason for female ascendency to low-level agrarian management during the late 1940's?
The loss of men in WWII
What percent of the Russian population were serfs by the EARLY 19th century?
80%
What was the substance of the 1957 secret agrement between Russia and China?
The USSR would provide China with nuclear technology
What did the 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk accomplish?
It extricated Russia from WWI
What treaty extricated Russia from WWI?
The Brest-Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk caused Russia to temporarily lose control of what three territories?
1.Finland
2.The Ukraine
3.The Baltic States
What minority ethnic group was NOT allowed to return to its homelands when the Soviet government withdrew Stalin's charges of treason and collaboration in 1956 - 1958?
The Crimean Tatars
Three ethnic minority groups allowed back to their homelands in 1956 - 58 were:
1.Karachai
2.Chechen
3.Kalmyks
What allowed some ethnic minorities to return to their homelands in 1956 - 58 after a long absence?
The Soviet government withdrew Stalin's charges of treason and collaboration against them which had caused their deportation.
What form of government did most Russian revolutionaries believe would be instituted after the February 1917 revolution?
Republican
Three reasons for society's relative calm during the Brezhnev era, despite its increasing dissatisfaction were:
1.Fear of punishment by the KGB
2.Total Party control of institutions
3.The preference for relative stability over the desire for change requiring chaos.
What nation withdrew from the Warsaw Pact in 1968?
Albania
Three elements of Andropov's economic program were:
1.Reducing government corruption
2.Tying managers' salaries to profits
3.Providing incentives for productive workers
What affect did the 1917 Kornilov Affair have on the Provisional Government?
It weakened it further
What were three purposes of Stalin's 1944 Marriage Decree?
1.Spur population growth
2.Provide a future labor force
3.Replace war losses
What were two elements of Stalin's 1944 Marriage Decree?
1.It nullified all common-law marriages
2.It made divorce much more difficult to obtain
What two reforms did 19th century intellectual reformist Mikhail Bakunin call for?
1. Abolition of the Russian Church
2. A Society without a dominant class