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286 Cards in this Set

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Define the Id.
The seat of primitive drives and instinctual needs.
What are the properties of the Id?
IMPULSES (impulsive behavior)
SELF-GRATIFICATION
Primary process thinking
Unconscious
Discharges tension
Define the Ego.
Mediates drives (id) and external reality.
Moderates drives vs internalized prohibitions
Adaptive capacity in relation to external reality.
What are the properties of the Ego?
REALITY TESTING
OBJECT RELATIONS
Judgment
Modulating and controlling impulses
Modulating affect
Regulate self-esteem
Mastering developmental challenges
Define the Superego.
Seat of Conscience
Ego Ideal
Guilt (if too strong = always guilty)
What are the properties of the Superego?
Uses internal and external rewards or punishments to control and regulate id impulses.
What are the three levels of the mind?
Unconscious
Preconscious
Conscious
What does the "Unconscious" hold?
Thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which we are unaware.
What does the "Preconscious" hold?
Thoughts and feelings, which can be brought into consciousness easily.
What does the "Conscious" hold?
Mental activities of which we are fully aware.
How many psychosexual stages did Freud describe and what are they?
5 Stages:
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic/Oedipal
4. Latency
5. Puberty-Genital
At what ages does Freud's "Oral" psychosexual stage occur?
0-1
At what ages does Freud's "Anal" psychosexual stage occur?
2-3
At what ages does Freud's "Phallic/Oedipal" psychosexual stage occur?
3-6
At what ages does Freud's "Latency" psychosexual stage occur?
6-11
At what ages does Freud's "Puberty-Genital" psychosexual stage occur?
12-18 Adolescense
What are the stages of Cognitive Development theorized by Piaget, and at what age do they occur?
1. Sensorimotor thought (0-2)
2. Preoperational thought (2.5-6 or 7)
3. Concrete Operations (7-11)
4. Formal Operations (11-18)
Name Erikson's 8 Psychosocial Stages in the lifecycle.
1. Trust vs Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
3. Initiative vs Guilt
4. Industry vs Inferiority
5. Identity vs Identity Diffusion
6. Intimacy vs Isolation
7. Generativity vs Self-Absorption
8. Integrity vs Disgust
Briefly explain Erikson's first stage: Trust vs. Mistrust.
Infancy (0-1)
-build trust in self & environment
-personality forms
-discontinuities in care = sense of mistrust
Briefly explain Erikson's second stage: Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt.
Early Childhood (2-3)
-muscular maturation: holding on/letting go
-attaches value to autonomous will
-development of one's own will or shame and doubt
Briefly explain Erikson's third stage: Initiative vs Guilt.
Play Age (3-6)
-imagination & ability to move & communicate expand
-intrusive activity, curiosity, & fantasy = guilt & anxiety
-One's conscious forms
-may develop a deep seated conviction that he is bad = stifled initiative or vindictiveness
Briefly explain Erikson's fourth stage: Industry vs Inferiority.
School Age (6-11)
-want to work/learn w/ others
-learns to accept instruction
-capacity for work enjoyment
-No recognition for one's efforts = inadequacy and inferiority
Briefly explain Erikson's fifth stage: Identity vs Identity Diffusion.
Adolescence (12-18)
-puberty
-questions "all sameness & continuities relied on earlier"
-integrates childhood identifications w/ biological drives, endowments, and social role opportunities
-possible development of negative identity towards becoming what parents, class, or community don't want them to be
Briefly explain Erikson's sixth stage: Intimacy vs Isolation.
Young Adulthood (18-mid 20's)
-security in oneself = intimacy with self & others
-love-based mutually satisfying relationships
-a person who cannot enter wholly into an intimate relationship b/c of fear of losing identity = isolation
Briefly explain Erikson's seventh stage: Generativity vs Self-Absorption.
Adulthood
-grows out of the intimacies of adulthood
-interest in establishin & guiding the next generation
-lack of generativity = self-absorption, stagnation, & personal impoverishment
Briefly explain Erikson's eighth stage: Integrity vs Disgust.
Senescence (Maturity)
-Satisfying intimacy w/ others & adapts to success and disappointments = end of life w/ ego integrity
-acceptance of own responsibility for what their life was & is.
-w/o this accrued ego integration = dispair w/ dipleasure & disgust
Explain Margaret Mahler's "Attachment" phase in object relations theory.
0-3 mths = normal autism & alert inactivity
2-6 mths = normal symbiosis & no differentiation between self & other; mutual caring
Explain Margaret Mahler's "Separation/Individuation" phase in object relations theory.
6-12 mths = differentiation & alert when awake; stranger anxiety (8 mths)
7-18 mths = practicing & disengagement w/ frequent returns to mother. Narcissism; anticipates mom will reengage
Explain Margaret Mahler's "Rapprochement (Integration)" phase in object relations theory
18-24 mths = alternating disengagement & demand for attention. Splitting. Language development; intent to solve dilemmas
Explain Margaret Mahler's "Object Constancy" phase in object relations theory
24-38 mths = Consolidation of individuality & object constancy.
-substitute of reliable internal image during absence; inception of unified self-image
What are the levels of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
1. Pre-Conventional
2. Conventional (follow stereotypic norms of morality)
3. Post-Conventional (not reached by most adults)
Briefly described the Pre-Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Elementary School- before 9yrs
1. Obedience/Punishment
2. Conform to rules to receive rewards.
Briefly described the Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Early Adolescence
3. Good boy/girl orientation
4. Obeys laws/obligations/duties & Rules are rules; avoid guilt
Briefly described the Post-Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Adult
5. Concern w/ individual rights & morality
6. Guided by individual principles based on broad, universal, ethical principles.
List the needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from lower to higher level.
Physiological
Safety
Love & Belonging
Esteem
Self-Actualization
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in the Neonate phase?
Physiological
Which of Maslow's needs dominate during Childhood?
Safety & Love/Belonging
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adolescents?
Self-esteem
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adulthood?
Self-actualizing
What are physiological needs?
Those that maintain the physical organism.
Biological needs- food, water, oxygen, body temp, medical care.
W/O these they will die
What are Safety needs?
Feel safe from harm, danger, threat of death. Regularity, predictability. Origin of cognitive needs (understand, make sense of the world).
What are Love & Belonging needs?
Assurance one is loved, worthy, and acceptable. Demand unconditional acceptance.
What are Ego/Esteem needs?
Need a stable, firmly based self-respect & respect from others. W/O this behavior is dominated by trying to gain respect & fame.
What are Self-Actualization need?
To be oneself consistently. An ongoing process. Only 1% of the population operates here.
When is Stranger Anxiety the strongest?
6-8 months (up to 14 months)
When is Separation Anxiety the strongest?
12 months (begins 7mths up to 16 mths)
How long is Prolonged Separation Anxiety?
18 months
Describe the Authoritarian parenting style.
Restrictive
Forceful, punitive discipline
Expect strict obedience
No explanation for rules
Describe the Authoritative parenting style.
Flexible parenting
Allow autonomy
Explain restrictions
Responsive to needs and wants
Use power & reason to gain compliance
Describe the Permissive parenting style.
Lax
Few demands
Permit free expression
Don't monitor activities
Rarely exert firm control over behavior
Describe child behavior when parenting style is Authoritarian.
Conflicted & Irritable
Fearful, apprehensive, unfriendly, moody, unhappy, passively hostile, sulky, easily stressed, aimless
Describe child behavior when parenting style is Authoritative.
Energetic & Friendly
Self-reliant, cheerful, curious, purposive, achievement oriented
Describe child behavior when parenting style is Permissive.
Impulsive & Aggressive
Rebellious, low self-reliance & control, impulsive, aggressive, domineering, aimless, low achievement
What are the 2 most common characteristics of a batterer?
1. Witness to/victim of violence during childhood or adolescence.
2. Chronic alcohol abuse
What is the Social Exchange Theory? How does it apply to battered women?
Based on the idea of potential benefits & losses to determine behavior.
Women will only leave when the rewards of leaving outweight the costs of leaving.
Why isn't traditional family therapy & couples therapy appropriate for DV?
It puts victims in greater danger of further abuse.
How do racism & sexism create deficits in social power Indirectly?
Prevent development of personal resources, interpersonal, technical skills, & reduce effectiveness in performing valued social roles.
How do racism & sexism create deficits in social power Directly?
Block access to good health services and deny valued social roles.
Name some things to keep in mind when working with Native
American families.
*Groups more important than individual.
*Tendency to communicate w/ same gender more often
*Don't follow linear time
*Animism- interconnectedness of all living things
*Light handgrasp or brush of fingers- No firm handshake
What are the best methods to use when working with a Native American family?
-Family or Group treatment.
-Nondirective, collaborative approaches.
-Use of metaphors, story tellings, paradoxical interventions, networking & rituals
Name some common characteristics of Hispanic/Latino families.
-Fastest growing minority pop. in US
-Hist of colonization & economic oppression
-Patriarchal family structure
-Most Roman Catholic
-Extended families
-Culture shock= big prob
What are the best approaches to use w/ Hispanic/Latino families?
-Short-term tx
-Insight oriented
-Elicit frequently & validate
-Build cnxs between old/new
Name some common characteristics of Asian/Pacific Islander families.
-Confucian & Buddhist philosophy influence
-Hierarchical & patriarchical family w/ strict roles.
-Shame used to maintain norms
-Indirect communication
-Emotional probs expressed w/ physical complaints
What are the best approaches to use w/ Asian/Pacific Islander families?
-Problem-focused
-Goal oriented
-Symptom relieving
-Psychoeducational approach
-Use indigenous supports
What is important to remember when prescribing Rx to Asian/Pacific Islanders?
Typically require lower doses of Rx & may have more side effects.
Recommend starting on 1/2 dose
What are some common characteristics in African American families?
-Multigenerational, kinship, non-blood relatives
-High value on religion
-Child may be parentified
-Egalitarian marriages
-High tolerance for suffering
-Physical punishment accepted
-Cultural paranoia
What are the most effective approaches when working w/ African American families?
-Ethnically sensitive
-Time limited
-Problem focused
-Child focused
-Family therapy
**Use last name unless told otherwise.
What must be done when a Native American child is being placed in foster care or adopted?
Contact the administrative office of the child's tribe. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 give jurisdiction to tribal authorities.
What must be done prior to making a psychiatric diagnosis?
Rule out a medical cause for the symptoms.
What is the time frame for a diagnosis of Brief Psychotic Disorder?
<1 month
What must be done BEFORE making a psychiatric diagnosis?
Rule out a medical cause.
When a substance or general medical cond. can account for the symptoms it preempts the diagnosis of any other disorder that could produce the symptoms.
If symptoms are indicative of both a more pervasive disorder (i.e. Schizophrenia) & a less pervasive disorder (i.e. Dysthymia) how do you diagnose?
Only the more pervasive disorder is diagnosed if both its defining symptoms & associated symptoms are present.
What is included on Axis I?
Clinical syndromes
V Codes
Developmental Disorders
**May be more than one
What is included on Axis II?
Personality Disorders
Mental Retardation
**Also-personality traits &/or habitual use of defense mechanism
What is included on Axis III?
General Medical Conditions
-that are important in some way to the understanding or management of the case.
What is included on Axis IV?
Psychosocial & Environmental problems which affect diagnosis, tx,& prognosis.
What is included on Axis V?
GAF- Global Assessment of Functioning.
**No impairment in fxn due to physical/environmental limitations.
What are some conditions that might be indicated by psychotic symptoms?
*Schizophrenia
*Bipolar I Disorder
*Major Depression
*Substance Induced Mental Dis.
*Mental dis. due to General Medical Cond (poss meds)
*Delusional Disorder
*Borderline Personality Dis
*Brief Psychotic Dis
*Schizophreniform Dis
*Schizoaffective Dis
What must present for a diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
Active psychotic symptoms
What used to be called "latent schizophrenia" is now called...
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
How long must symptoms be present to diagnose Brief Psychotic Disorder, Schizophreniform Disorder, & Schizophrenia
Brief Psychotic <1 mth Schizophreniform <6 mths
Schizophrenia >6 mths
Patient: Child
Symptoms: Bizarre behavior, impaired communication, impaired social interaction, & restricted repertoire of activities & interests w/o delusions or hallucinations.
Possible Autistic Disorder
How many periods of mania are required for a diagnosis of Bipolar I?
One period of mania
Diagnose:
Anxiety related to separation from parental figures.
A form of phobic rxn.
Separation Anxiety Disorder
If a panic attack is caused by a substance what is it called?
Substance Induced Anxiety Dis
If a panic attack or depression is caused by a medical illness it is called?
Anxiety Disorder due to a General Medical Condition or Mood Disorder due to...
If depression is caused by a substance what is it called?
Substance Induced Mood Dis
Name one medical cond that could cause panic attacks
Hyperthyroid condition
What are the age specific criteria for a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder?
> 18 years
Symptoms present < 15 years
(<18 = Conduct Disorder)
What is a similarity between Delusional Disorder & Paranoid Schizophrenia?
Delusions may occur in both
What are some key differences between Delusional Disorder & Paranoid Schizophrenia?
PS- prominant auditory hallucinations & bizarre delusions that are not characteristic of DD. Generally, DD produces less impairment.
What category of disorders do the following fall under?
Drug/Alcohol Intoxication
Withdrawal
Drug/Alcohol Abuse & Dependence
Substance Related Disorders
Name 4 disorders that by definition are rxns.
1. PTSD
2. Acute Stress Disorder
3. Adjustment Disorder
4. Bereavement
Name the 7 Disorders that be definition are chronic or relatively chronic
All Personality disorders
Schizophrenia
Dysthymic Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Somatization disorder
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
6 or more mths.
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Dythymic Disorder?
2 or more yrs
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Cyclothymic Disorder?
2 or more yrs
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
6 or more mths
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Hypochondriasis?
6 or more mths
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Somatization Disorder?
Several Yrs
What is the difference between Paraphilias vs. Sexual Dysfunction?
Paraphilia- inappropriate sexual objects or practice
Sxl Dysfxn- inhibition of sexual response
What is the difference between Parasomnias vs. Dyssomnia?
Parasomnia- abnormal event that occurs during sleep or between sleep & waking
Dyssomnia- disturbance in amount, timing or quality of sleep.
Name the "neurovegatative" or "classic" symptoms of depression.
Changes in appetite & weight
Sleep disturbance
Fatigue
Decrease in energy
Decrease in sexual desire/fxn
What is Conversion Disorder in relation to motor fxn?
Although it is associated w/ actual loss of motor fxn or symptoms & deficits that affect voluntary motor fxn the patient does not produce or control them voluntarily.
What is Factitious disorder?
Patient intentionally produces symptoms due to a psychological need to adopt the "sick role"
When someone with Factitious disorder produces physical symptoms the disorder is called...
Munchausen Syndrome
What is Malingering?
Patient intentionally fakes or produces symptoms in order to obtain an external reward or to achieve a goal.
What is Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy?
When a caregiver, primarily a parent, produces deliberate medical symptoms in a child. Medical personnel usually become suspicious when a child has repeated, unexplained illnessess. **Is considered a form of child abuse.
What personality disorder has a symptom of Magical Thinking?
Schizotypal PD
What condition can Hyperthyroidism mimic?
Symptoms of Mania
What condition can Hypothyroidism mimic?
Depression
What are the signs of Delirium?
Changes in level of consciousness & orientation.
Change in cognition &/or perceptions.
Difficulty shifting & maintaining attention.
Delirious
What are the signs of Dementia?
Disturbance involving memory impairment & other cognitve impairments.
What is the most commonly known Dementia?
Alzheimer's
What is the cause of Delirium?
General medical condition or substance use or both.
Usually a medical emergency
What is the cause of Dementia?
Usually caused by general medical condition.
Can result from a series of strokes (vascular dementia) with "patchy cognitive symptoms."
Describe the onset of Delirium.
Rapid or acute onset of symptoms.
Symptoms fluctuate over time (ex: better in am worse in pm)
Describe the onset of Dementia
Insidious- becomes progressively worse over time.
What are the three clusters of personality disorders?
A: Odd & Eccentric
B: Dramatic, Emotional, & Erratic
C: Anxious & Fearful
What personality disorders fall under Cluster A?
"Odd & Eccentric"
-Paranoid PD
-Schizotypal PD
-Schizoid PD
What personality disorders fall under Cluster B?
"Dramatic, Emotional, Erratic"
-Borderline PD
-Antisocial PD
-Histrionic PD
-Narcissistic
What personality disorders fall under Cluster C?
"Anxious, Fearful"
-Avoidant
-Dependent
-Obessive-Compulsive
What is Dissociation & who is it usually seen in?
Disturbance or change in the usually integrative fxns of memory, identity, perception, or consciousness.
Often seen in patients with a hx of trauma
Comorbid
Existing w/ or at the same time.
Ex: having 2 illness at the same time
Contraindicated
Not recommended or safe to use.
Ex: Dr. would not Rx a med or tx that is contraindicated b/c it could have serious consequences
What causes Endogenous Depression?
Depression caused by biochemical imbalance rather than a psychosocial stressor or external factor.
What are the symptoms of Endogenous depression.
Usually more severe & consist of the "classic" or neurovegetative symptom of depression. Loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep disturbance, decrease in libido, weight loss, psychomotor retardation or agitation, etc.
Exogenous Depression
Caused by external events or psychosocial stressors.
Symptoms tend to be less severe than Endogenous.
Folie a Deux
Shared Delusion.
ex: A person may develop a delusion system as a result of a close relationship w/ a person who already has an established delusional system.
Hypomanic
Elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that is less severe than full-blown manic symptoms. Hypomanic symptoms are not severe enough to interfere with fxning & are not accompanied by psychotic symptoms.
Postmorbid
Subsequent to the onset of an illness
Premorbid
Prior to the onset of an illness
Prodromal
Period of time before the onset of a serious illness during which there may be subtle symptoms.
EX: before the onset of a full-blown psychotic episode, a patient may manifest a somewhat guarded, suspicious & angry affect as well as disorganized behavior & thought processes
When is the only time a person can be INVOLUNTARILY committed?
If they are a harm to themself or others.
What is this psychological test...NAIS?
Wechsler adult intelligence scale
What is this psychological test...WISC?
Wechsler intelligence scale for children revised
What is this psychological test...Standford-Binet?
Intelligence test for children
What is this psychological test...Draw-A Person Test?
Provides info. about a child's self image.
What does the psychological test MMPI test for?
Predominant personality traits or behavior
What are some Projective tests?
Rorschach Test (inkblot)
TAT (thematic perceptions test)
What is this psychological test...Beck Depression Inventory?
Scales level of depression
What are Disruptive Behavior Disorders?
Seen in children & youth. Exhibit socially disruptive behavior (interferes w/ social situations, such as the classroom, playground situation, & family activities.)
Attention-Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
A condition characterized by a failure to remain attentive to various situations, esp. in school & home. Causes are likely to be biological.
What is required for a diagnosis of ADHD?
Symptoms must occur in at least 2 different settings/situations. Symptoms can increase during stress or decrease in a strictly controlled or novel situation.
Conduct Disorder
Under age 18
Repetitive & persistant pattern of violated the basic rights of others or age appropriate social norms/rules.
Low empathy, affection, concern for others.
W/o guilt & remorse
Callous & manipulative
Physical violence: vandilism to rape & murder
Truant
Substance Abuse
What is the most effective Tx for Conduct Disorder?
Involves patient, family, schools, & community.
Provide parenting skills & behavior modification at home and school
Oppositional Disorder
Kids display aggressiveness by patterns of obsinate but generally passive behavior. Appear to conform, but provoke adults/other kids. Use negativism, stubborness, dawdling, procrastination to show aggression.
What is the difference between Oppositional and Conduct Disorder?
Oppositional does not have symptoms that Conduct does, they do not violate the rights of others.
Name the 5 anxiety disorders of childhood/adolescence?
Separation Anxiety
Avoidant Behavior
Overanxious Disorder
PTSD
Simple Phobia
What is School Phobia?
A form of separation anxiety.
Allowing kids to stay home only increases the prob
Explain Avoidant Behavior
Kids avoid making new friends or strangers to an extent that it interferes w/ development of peer relationships & social fxning.
Explain Overanxious Disorder and how it may be expressed
Kids have diffuse fears & worries w/ no specific cause. Worry excessively about many things.
Anxiety may be expressed as headaches, respiratory distress, etc.
What is a Simple Phobia & when is typical onset?
Persistent irrational fears of a specific objects, activity or situation.
Onset usually = late teens or early adulthood
When does PTSD occur?
At any age.
Following a psychologicall distressing event that is outside the range of usual human experience
What are some signs that a child is experiencing PTSD?
Repeat event in play.
Avoid reminders of the event.
Feel detached from others.
Loss of pleasure
Difficulty sleeping
Nightmares
Difficulty concentrating
Physical symptoms (headache)
Lose of recently acquired developmental skills (toilet training or language skills)
What are Developmental Disorders?
Primary disturbance in acquisition of motor, language, social, or cognitive skills.
What are Specific Developmental Disorders?
Delay in one skill development
What are Pervasive Developmental Disorders?
Multiple areas of development are affected.
Group of conditions marked by distortions, deviations, & delays in social/motor skills, language, attention, perception, & reality testing
Describe Autism symptoms, including age of diagnosis.
Pervasive DD.
Onset before age 3.
Failure to dev. relatedness to parents & others.
As infants- no social smile, avoid eye contact, no cuddle.
Kids- fail to dev. normal language & may use non-verbal
Possible Echolalia.
Activities are rigid, repetitive, w/o variety.
Over/under response to sensory stimuli.
Echolalia
Meaningless repetition of what is said by others.
Often seen in those with Autism
What is the intellectual fxning of a person w/ Autism?
Range- profound retardation to normal.
50%= moderately, severly, or profoundly retarded
25%= mildly retarded
25%= IQ 70+
Which sex does Autism occur more frequently in?
Males by 4-5x as many
What does Bipolar Disorder look like?
Distinct period of mood elevation usually followed by a major depressive episode.
Manic episodes began suddenly & escalate.
Possible rapid shifts from elevated mood-anger-depression.
Possible suicidal thoughts
What are some Manic symptoms seen in Bipolar Disorder?
Inflated self-esteem
Decrease need for sleep/increased energy
Loud/rapid speech
Abrubt change of topic
Distractibility
Restless
Increased sociality
Disorganize, flamboyant, bizarre activities
What is another name for Major Depressive Episode when seen in children?
Childhood Depression
Aside from symptoms seen in all ages, what should you look for in children with Major Depressive Episodes?
Irritability
Failure to make expected weight gains
Feign illness
Hyperactivity
Cling to parents
Refuse to go to school
Fearful of parents death
What symptoms might be seen in older children with Major Depressive Episode?
Sulky
Refuse cooperation in family & social activity
School trouble
Use of substances
Less attention to appearance
Negative
Feeling misunderstood
Restless
Grouchy
Aggressive
When is Major Depressive Episode usually seen if it strictly seasonal?
Oct-Nov
Among which population are Behavioral & Somatic symptoms of depression most prominant?
Children & Adolescents
What % of teen suicides are linked to depression?
80%
Explain Identity Disorder of infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
Severe distress re: inability to integrate aspects of his acceptable sense of self.
Aspects relate to career choice, friendship patterns, sexual orientation, religious identification, moral value systems, & group loyalty
Explain Adjustment Disorder of infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
A group of disorders that is a maladaptive rxn to an identifiable stressor.
Onset- w/in 3 mths of stressor
Symptoms last up to 6 mths
What differentiates Adjustment disorder in kids from normal psychological changes?
Extreme anxiety
Depression
Eating probs
Sleeping probs
Clinging to parents/peers
Psychosomatic disorders
Impulsive acting out
Name some criteria for Adjustment disorder in kids.
Impairment in normal level of social & education fxn
Disturbance of mood
Conduct disturbance
Physical symptoms w/o medical basis.
Symptoms for 6 mths or less
Occurs w/in 3 mths of an identifiable stressor (divorce, death, etc)
Describe Encopresis.
Elimination disorder involving repeated passage of feces at inappropriate places.
Often involuntary (may be intentional)
Occurs at least 1x/mth for 3 mths in child 4yrs +
Child is embarrassed & avoids situations that might be embarrassing (camp/sleepovers)
May suffer rejection from peers/parents
Describe Stereotypic Movement Disorder.
Motor behavior seems driven, repetitive, w/o fxn & interferes w/ activities.
Potentially can cause self-inflicted injury to the kid.
Describe Rhett's Disorder.
Females only
Development of persistent & progressive developmental regression after a period of normal development.
Onset prior to age 4- usually 1-2 yrs of age.
Stereotypic hand movements
Probs w/coordination of gait & trunk movement
Profound mental retardation
Severe expressive & receptive language development
What is an important social & communication difference between Asperger's & Autistic Diorders?
Aspergers- social delay/probs
Autistic- social & communication delays/probs
What are the main characteristics of Asperger's Disorder?
Most common in boys.
Severe/sustained impairment in social interactions.
Restricted/repetitive patters of behavior, interests, & activities.
What is the best solution to a child refusing to go to school due to parent-child attachment issues?
Send the child to school
Which category of drugs do Neuroleptics fall under?
Antipsychotics
Describe Parkinsonian sydrome.
Triad of signs
*Tremor
*Rigidity
*Slowed Movement
Cogwheel feel to joint
Masklike facies, diminished expressiveness
What type of drug is Thorazine?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Mellaril?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Stelazine?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Prolixin?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Navane?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Haldol?
Typical Antipsychotic
What type of drug is Clozapine? Name one trade name.
Atypical Antipsychotic
Clozapine
What type of drug is Risperidone? Name one trade name.
Atypical Antipsychotic
Risperdol
What type of drug is Tofranil?
Imiprimine
Tricyclic
What type of drug is Elavil?
Amitiptyline
Tricyclic
What type of drug is Seroquel?
Quetiapine
Atypical Antipsychotic
Newer
What type of drug is Zyprexa?
Olanzapine
Atypical Antipsychotic
New
What type of drug is Aventyl?
Nortriptyline
TCA
What type of drug is Pamelor?
Nortriptyline
TCA
What type of drug is Norpramin?
Despramine
TCA
What type of drug is Adapin?
Doxepin
TCA
What type of drug is Sinequan?
Doxepin
TCA
What type of drug is Nardil?
Phenelizine
MAOI
What type of drug is Parnate?
Tranylcypromine
MAOI
What type of drug is Marplan?
Isocarboxazid
MAOI
What type of medication is most effective for treating Atypical Depression and Non-Endogenous Depressions?
MAOI's
What are "second generation" antidepressants?
Have similar effects to TCA's and MAOI's but reduced side effects and adverse effects.
These include SSRI's, and some others.
What type of drug is Asendin?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Desyrel?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Wellbutrin?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Ludiomil?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Serzone?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Prozac?
Fluoxetine
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drug is Zoloft?
Sertraline
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drug is Paxil?
Paroxetine
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drug is Lexepro?
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drug is Celexa?
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drugs are used to treat Bipolar Disorder?
Mood Stabilizers (1st) & Anticonvulsants
What is the main drug used to treat Bipolar Disorder?
Lithium (a mood stabilizer)
What type of drug is Tegretol? What disorder is it used to treat?
Carbamazepine
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
What type of drug is Depakote? What disorder is it used to treat?
Valproic Acid
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
What type of drug is Neurontin? What disorder is it used to treat?
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
What type of drug is Lamictal? What disorder is it used to treat?
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
What type of drug is Topomax? What disorder is it used to treat?
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
Why are Anticonvulsants used to treat Bipolar Disorder?
They are used to stabilize moods.
What types of drugs are used to treat Panic Disorder w/ or w/o Agoraphobia?
TCA's
MAOI's
Alprazolam (Xanax)
SSRI's
What types of drugs are used to Tx OCD?
TCA's (clomipramine/Anafranil)
MAOI's
SSRI's (fluvoxamine/Luvox & sertraline/Zoloft)
What types of drugs are used to Tx Specific Phobia & Social Phobia?
Beta Blockers (propanolol)
-tx stage fright
Paxil- for social phobia
What the main classes of drugs are used to Tx GAD?
Benzodiazepines
Anxiolytic Drugs(Minor Tranqs)
Antipsychotics
Buspirone(Buspar)
What are the anxiolytic drugs used to treat GAD?
Barbituates
Methaqualone (Quaaludes, Sopors)
Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)
Meprobamate (Miltown)
What are the three main drug classes used to induce sleep (hypnotic drugs)?
Benzodiazepines
Barbituates
Antidepressant
Why are Benzodiazepines used to Tx GAD over barbituates?
Safer
More effective
Less abuse potential
Name 4 Benzo's commonly used as anxiolytics.
diazepam (Valium)
chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
lorazepam (Ativan)
clorazepate (Tranxene)
What are Benzo's useful in treating?
Symptoms of GAD
Managing seizures in patients detoxing from alcohol & depressant drugs.
What are some issues to consider when treating with Benzo's?
Chronic vs. PRN Tx
Relapse vs. w/drawal symptoms after meds are stopped
Abuse liability
Difficulty stopping use
Overuse
What drug is used most often in overdoses?
Benzodiazepines
What are the side effects of Benzo's?
Impaired muscle coordination (psychomotor fxn)
Impairment of short-term memory (Anterograde memory)
What class of drugs are prescribed for hyperactivity in kids?
Psychostimulants
What type of drug is Ritalin? What is it typically used to treat?
Methylphenidate
Psychostimulant
Hyperactivity in Kids
What type of drug is Adderall? What is it typically used to treat?
Amphetamine
Psychostimulant
Hyperactivity in Kids
What type of drug is Cylert? What is it typically used to treat?
Pemoline
Psychostimulant
Hyperactivity in Kids
What are side effects of Psychostimulants (drugs used to Tx hyperactivity in kids)?
Insomnia
Decreased appetite
Stomachaches
Headaches
Jitteriness
What drugs are used most frequently in the Tx of Schizophrenia?
Antipsychotic Drugs
If a patient is noncompliant w/ their Typical Antipsychotic meds what can be done to increase compliance?
A deconoate form that can be injected 1x every 2-4 weeks.
Esp. haloperidol (Haldol) & fluphenazine (Prolixin).
What are Phenothiazine derivatives?
Typical Antipsychotics
What target symptoms are most likely to respond to Typical Antipsychotics?
Positive Symptoms
Agitation
Hallucinations
Delusions
Combativeness & Belligerance
Sleep Disturbance
Tension
Paranoid Behavior
Disorganized
What target symptoms are least likely to respond to Typical Antipsychotics?
Negative Symptoms
Impaired judgment
Lack of insight
Depression
Withdrawal
Poor Motivation
What side effects are associated with TCA's?
*Autonomic, anticholinergic
*Cardiovascular- hypotension, tachycardia, change in EKG arrhythmias
*Precipitation of hypomania in rapid cycling bipolar
What are Anticholinergic side effects?
Dry mouth
Blurred vision
Constipation
Urinary incontinence or retention
Sweating
Heat sensitivity
Name the 7 steps in the Problem-solving process w/in the social work process.
EGAGIET
Engagement
Gathering information
Assessing/Diagnosis
Goal Setting
Intervention
Evaluation
Termination
What are the 6 stages in the referral process?
1. Clarify need or purpose
2. Research resources
3. Discuss/select options w/ client
4. Plan for initial contact
5. Initial contact
6. F/U to make sure need was met.
Throughout all types of social work fields and processes what must ALWAYS be kept in mind?
The client's right to SELF DETERMINATION.
Validity
The degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure.
A method can be reliable, consistently measuring the same thing, but not valid.
Variable
Observable characteristics that vary among individuals.
What does "Treatment" mean in research?
The stimulus given to a dependent variable.
t-test
A statistical test. A t-test is used to determine if the scores of two groups differ on a single variable. For instance, to determine whether writing ability differs among students in two classrooms, a t-test could be used.
Survey
A research tool that includes at least one question which is either open-ended or close-ended and employs an oral or written method for asking these questions. The goal of a survey is to gain specific information about either a specific group or a representative sample of a particular group. Results are typically used to understand the attitudes, beliefs, or knowledge of a particular group.
Standard Error of the mean
A term used in statistical analysis. A computed value based on the size of the sample and the standard deviation of the distribution, indicating the range within which the mean of the population is likely to be from the mean of the sample at a given level of probability
Standard Deviation
A term used in statistical analysis. A measure of variation that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean;
Skewed distribution
Any distribution which is not normal, that is not symmetrical along the x-axis
Sample
The population researched in a particular study. Usually, attempts are made to select a "sample population" that is considered representative of groups of people to whom results will be generalized or transferred. In studies that use inferential statistics to analyze results or which are designed to be generalizable, sample size is critical--generally the larger the number in the sample, the higher the likelihood of a representative distribution of the population.
Sampling Error
The degree to which the results from the sample deviate from those that would be obtained from the entire population, because of random error in the selection of respondent
Reliability
The extent to which a measure, procedure or instrument yields the same result on repeated trials.
Range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Randomization
Used to allocate subjects to experimental and control groups. The subjects are initially considered not unequal because they were randomly selected.
Quasi-Experiment
Similar to true experiments. Have subjects, treatment, etc., but uses nonrandomized groups. Incorporates interpretation and transferability in order to compensate for lack of control of variables.
Quantitative Research
Empirical research in which the researcher explores relationships using numeric data. Survey is generally considered a form of quantitative research. Results can often be generalized, though this is not always the case.
Qualitative Research
Empirical research in which the researcher explores relationships using textual, rather than quantitative data. Case study, observation, and ethnography are considered forms of qualitative research. Results are not usually considered generalizable, but are often transferable.
Probability
The chance that a phenomenon has a of occurring randomly. As a statistical measure, it shown as p (the "p" factor).
Population
The target group under investigation, as in all students enrolled in first-year composition courses taught in traditional classrooms. The population is the entire set under consideration. Samples are drawn from populations.
Mode
The most frequent score in a distribution
Median
The center score in a distribution.
Mean
The average score within a distribution.
Interrater Reliability
The extent to which two or more individuals agree. It addresses the consistency of the implementation of a rating system.
Internal Consistency
The extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic, skill, or quality.
Generalizability
The extent to which research findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population can be applied to the population at large.
Distribution
The range of values of a particular variable.
Dependent Variable
A variable that receives stimulus and measured for the effect the treatment has had upon it.
Independent Variable
A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable, such as age, size, weight, etc.
Correlation
A common statistical analysis, usually abbreviated as r, that measures the degree of relationship (non causal) between pairs of interval variables in a sample. The range of correlation is from -1.00 to zero to +1.00.
Control Group
A group in an experiment that receives not treatment in order to compare the treated group against a norm.
Case Study
The collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves.
Internal validity
did the experimental tx make a difference. Did one thing cause another?
External validity
can results be generalized
Content validity
ex: how well does the Beck depression inventory measure depression
Construct validity
to what extent explanatory concepts or qualities account for performance
Predictive validity
to what degree does variation in test scores predict variation on another measure. Does IQ predict grades.
Face validity
Does the test focus directly on the behavior we are interested in?
Inferential statistical tests
ANOVA, t-test, chi square