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185 Cards in this Set

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Where did the first homo-sapiens emerge?
Africa
What advancements were made by Paleolithic peoples?
first tools
use of fire
oral language
cave art
The beginning of agriculture
Neolithic Age
What advancements were made during the Neolithic Age
agriculture
domestication of animals
used advanced tools
pottery and weaving skills
How do archaeologists date remains
Carbon 14
Where was Egyptian civilization located
Nile River in Egypt
What is Mesopotamia
land between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates)
On what river was India's ancient civilization?
Indus
On what river did Shang civilization emerge?
Huang He
Fertile Crescent
crescent-shaped area of fertile land extending from the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea
What two products were traded by Phoenicia?
purple dye and cedar wood
What was the first monotheistic religion
Hebrew/Jewish
Who is often considered to have written the first code of laws?
Hammurabi
Sumerian writing system--the world's first
cuneiform
burial chambers for Eygpt's pharaohs
Pyramids
Book containing the written records and beliefs of Hebrews
Torah
Religiou and moral code of conduct for Hebrews
Ten Commandments
two prophets of Judaism
Abraham and Moses
Who developed the first alphabet
Phoenicians
ancient Egyptian writing
Hieroglyphics
Persian prophet
Zoroaster
Empire that controlled the Iranian Plateau and was tolerant over conquered peoples
Persia
Developed the caste system
Aryans
Golden Age of Ancient India when new textiles were made, literature and mathematics were advanced
Gupta
Rigidly structured organization of society based on occupation
caste system
Religion which included caste system
Hindu
Brahma
Hindu god/creator who takes on many forms
Holy books of Hinduism
Vedas and Upanishads
belief that future incarnation is based on present behavior
karma (Hindu)
religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
his missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia
Asoka
Eightfold Path and Four Noble Truths
Buddhist religious doctrine/beliefs, explain suffering and correct behavior
connected East Asia and southwest Asia facilitating trade between China and Rome/Byzantine
Silk Road
Contributions made by classical China
porcelain
silk
civil service
paper
gunpowder
often credited with construction of the Great Wall of China
Shi Huangti
connected East Asia and southwest Asia facilitating trade between China and Rome/Byzantine
Silk Road
connected East Asia and southwest Asia facilitating trade between China and Rome/Byzantine
Silk Road
Chinese built this as a defensive barrier against invasion
Great Wall of China
Chinese belief that their rulers were divine and would only rule as long as they were just
Mandate of Heaven
connected East Asia and southwest Asia facilitating trade between China and Rome/Byzantine
Silk Road
Beliefs include: belief that humans are good, respect, politeness, government is good, education, ancestor worship
Confucianism
founder of Taoism
Lao Tzu
Teaches harmony with nature, humility, simple life
Taoism
religion that spread from China throughout Asia
Buddhism
Describe Greece's geography?
Peninsula with limited fertile land making trade necessary that controlled the Aegean Sea. Mild climate promoted life outdoors. Need to colonize abroad for land and because of overpopulation
Zeus
king of Greek Olympic gods
Hera
Queen/mother of Greek gods
Aprhodite
Greek goddess of love
Type of government Athens had during its golden age
direct democracy
tyrant reformer of Athens whose laws were too harsh
Draco
tyrant-reformer who made Athens more democratic
Solon
Who could not participate in Athens' democracy?
women, slaves, foreigners
militaristic city-state with an oligarchy; rivaled Athens
Sparta
Wars between Greece and Persia
Persian Wars
Two victories for Greece over Persia in the Persian Wars
Marathon and Salamis
Why was the Persian Wars important to the development of Greek culture?
led to the creation of the Delian League; temporary unification of Greek city-states; led to Athenian Golden Age
leader of the Athenian Golden Age
Pericles
wars between Athens and its Delian League and Sparta and its allies
Peloponnesian War
Results of the Peloponnesian War
ended Athenian Golden Age; ripe for attack by Philip II
Greek marketplace and meeting place
agora
great temple built during the reign of Pericles with oversight by Phidias
Parthenon
Greek fortified hill
Acropolis
first playwright
Aeschylus
writer of the Iliad and Odyssey
Homer
great Greek sculptor of Athena and Zeus
Phidias
Father of History; wrote Persian Wars
Herodotus
wrote of the Peloponnesian Wars
Thucydides
developed the water screw, pi, and improved use of lever
Archimedes
father of scientific medicine
Hippocrates
father of geometry
Euclid
great philosopher who was sentenced to death; taught knowledge is the greatest virtue
Socrates
wrote the Republic; student of Socrates
Plato
teacher of Alexander the Great
Aristotle
student of Plato; scientifically classified plants and animals; logic
Aristotle
responsible for spreading Hellenistic culture
Alexander the Great
Greek-like culture that blended with Oriental cultures
Hellenistic
Describe Rome's geography
centrally located in Mediterranean Basin, Alps provided some protection, fertile soil
Modern day France
Gaul
Germanic tribe that settled in England
Angles
Saxons
Our planets are named after
Roman gods and goddesses
Jupiter
king of Roman gods
Venus
Goddess of love (Rome)
patricians
powerful nobility of Rome
plebeians
majority of Romans; commoners
Laws of Rome
12 Tables
Rome's laws guaranteed
Innocent until proven guilty
Wars between Rome and Carthage
Punic Wars
Carthaginian general who invaded Rome during the Second Punic War
Hannibal
How did Rome gain control of the western Med. and trade through the region
Victory against Carthage in Punic Wars
Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic
spread of slavery,
migration of small farmers to the cities, civil war and the death of Julius Caesar, and inflation
Why was Julius Caesar assassinated
Some senators felt he was becoming too powerful
who defeated Mark Antony to become Rome's first emperor
Augustus
who was the emperor who began the Pax Romana
Augustus
200 year period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire
Pax Romana
As Rome's empire grew, what happened to the power of the senate
went down
As Rome's empire grew, what happened to the power of the senate
went down
What was the impact of the Pax Romana
uniform system of currency, safe travel and trade, expansion of the Roman Empire, social stability
Who was the apostle who spread Christianity to the people of the Roman Empire
Paul
Which Roman emperor legalized and adopted Christianity
Constantine
Edict of Milan
legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire (Constantine)
book that tells of the life and teachings of Jesus
New Testament
3 monotheistic religions
Judaism, Christiantiy, Islam
monotheistic
belief in one god
As Rome's empire fell, what happened to the power of the Catholic Church
it increased
Roman architectural contributions
dome, road, Pantheon, Colosseum, aqueduct, Roman arch
language of Rome
Latin
the Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, etc.) are based on
Latin
writer of the Aenied
Virgil
belief in many gods
polytheistic
people from northern Europe who invaded northern Europe from sea
Vikings
Why did the Western Roman Empire decline?
cost of defense, inflation, moral decay, political problems, civil wars, unclear line of succession, invasions by barbarians
Two reforms by Constantine
legalized Christianity and move capital to Constantinople, previously Byzantium
emperor who divided the Roman empire into East and West
Diocletian
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople
Geographical advantages to Constantinople
easily protected, away from Germanic invasions, crossroads of trade, close to Silk Road, great harbor
Great Byzantine emperor
Justinian
3 accomplishments made by Justinian
reconquered former Roman territories, code of laws (Justinian's Code), and expanded trade
religious images (used by Byzantine empire)
icon
langauge spoken by most people of the Byzantine Empire
Greek
great Byzantine domed Church
Hagia Sophia
Schism
religious division or split
What factors caused the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzatnine Church (Orthodox)
language (Latin vs Greek)
celibacy (yes vs no)
icon controversy
pope vs patriarch
Missiornary who spread Christianity to eastern Europe and developed an alphabet
Cyril
Where did Islam begin?
Arabian Peninsula, Mecca, Medina
Who is the prophet of Islam
Muhammad
Who is the god of Islam
Allah
What is the Islamic holy book
Quran
What are the duties of Muslims
Five Pillars
What caused the Sunni-Shi'a schism?
debate over who was the successor to Muhammad
the west African kingdoms of Songhai, Ghana, and Mali traded
gold and salt
language of Muslims
Arabic
Muslims were defeated here preventing the spread of Islam into Europe
Battle of Tours
Muslim contributions
mosaics, Arabic, number system including zero, algebra, medicine, geogrpahy
land given to a vassal in exchange for loyalty
fief
political and military system in which nobles entered arrangements with other lords in exchange for protection
feudalism
manors were expected to be able to meet all needs meaning they were to be--
self-sufficient
political and military system in which nobles entered arrangements with other lords in exchange for protection
feudalism
peasant during feudal times that was bound to the land
serf
in exchange for a fief these people offer protection to their lord and to serve him
vassal
great Frankish king who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Charlemagne
great Frankish king who revived Roman culture, stressed education, expanded his empire through most of western Europe
Charlemagne
state religion of ancient Japan, kami
Shinto
city in west Africa that served as the foundation for trans-Saharan trade of gold and salt
Timbuktu
African civilization located on the Limpono and Zambezi Rivers
Zimbabwe
Zoroater
Persian religious prophet
religion of west African kingdoms
Islam
civilization located in the Mexican and Central American rainforest
Maya
civilization located in central Mexico
Aztec
capital of Aztec
Tenochtitlan
achievements made by the Maya, Aztec,
calendar, mathematics, pyramids
What were the Crusades?
Christian attempt to reconquer holy lands (Jerusalem) from Muslims
Who was Pope Urban II?
Pope who made the call for the first Crusade
Who was Saladin?
Muslim Turk who reconquered Holy Lands leading to the 3rd and 4th Crusade
What were the results of the Crusades?
Weakened the pope and nobles
Strengthened monarchs
Stimulated trade
Increased desire for luxury items from Asia and Middle East
Bitterness between Jews and Muslims
Weakened the pope and nobles
strengthened monarchs
stimulated trade
increased desire for luxury items from Asia and the Middle East
bitterness between Jews and Muslims
What is the other name for the bubonic plague?
Black Plague
Black Plague
What is usury?
high rate of interest
What were the effects of the Black Death?
decline in population, created labor shortage, peasants gained rights
Where did the Renaissance begin?
Florence, Italy (also Venice and Genoa)
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
trade brought wealth
Who was King John?
English monarch who signed the Magna Carta
Who was William the Conqueror?
Norman king who conquered England (Battle of Hastings); united England
What event marked the beginning of England as a nation?
Norman Conquest by William the Conqueror
What is common law?
judges that based their decisions on earlier, accepted rulings
Which monarch began common law?
Henry II
What was the Magna Carta?
document signed by King John that limited the power of the British king
What event helped unify and define both England and France as nations?
Hundred Years' War
Who was Joan of Arc?
French heroine of the Hundred Years' War who unified the French people and led them to victory
Which Spanish monarchs expelled the Muslim Moors and helped unify their nation?
Ferdinand and Isabella
Which Spanish monarch created a great overseas empire?
Philip II
Who was the great Russian monarch who overthrew the Mongols, centralized the power of the Russian king and unified his nation?
Ivan the Great
tsar
Russian monarch ("first" was Ivan the Great)
What was the name of the Christian African kingdom?
Axum
What were the geographical advantages of Zimbabwe's location?
Zambezi River, Limpono Rivers, and near the Indian Ocean
What products were traded by West African civilizations?
gold and salt
Which civilization began in Mongolia and expanded into China, Southwest Asia, and Russia by conquering cities and rural areas?
Mongols
What is humanism?
belief in the individual worth of each person
What was the Renaissance?
rebirth of Roman and Greek (classical) civilizations; emphasized humanism
What was the name of the great patron family of Florence?
Medici
Who painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper?
Leondardo daVinci
What was Michelangelo responsible for painting? sculpting?
Sistine Chapel Ceiling and David
Who is the father of humanism?
Erasmus
Who wrote Utopia?
Sir Thomas More
Who wrote The Prince?
Machiavelli
What ideas were put forward by The Prince?
Absolute power of the ruler; the end justifies the means; one should do good if possible, but can do evil when necessary
Who were the invaders of the Indian subcontinent?
Aryans