Antibody

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    2. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES: 2.1. What are Monoclonal Antibodies? 2.1.1. “Clones” A clone is a group (family) of cells which come from a single parent cell that divides various times and are identical in all ways. In their structure, metabolic characteristics, functions, etc. 2.1.2. “Antibodies” An antibody is a protein which is produced by the human body’s immune system when it detects a substance that may be harmful (antigens like: bacteria, viruses, chemicals, parasites, etc). Antibodies are sometimes produced when the immune system mistakenly considers a healthy tissue, as a dangerous one, and creates antibodies against it. This is called an “autoimmune disorder”. [8] 2.1.3. “Antigens” An antigen can be any foreign substance capable…

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    lymphokines, whereas, B cells mature in the bone marrow with cell surface molecules of antibodies and BCR. This is one way of distinguishing between the two types of cell (Eales, 1999). Even though they both specifically recognise foreign molecules such as microorganisms and destroy them, also known as a specific immune response,…

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    Clinical Appearance Essay

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    • Clinical Appearance This refers to any specific signs and symptoms that are related to the development of an infection or disease. The appropriate description of the clinical appearance often leads to a diagnosis of the illness. • Stained culture/histology examination False coloration of a substance to aid in the inspection of tissues, microorganisms, or other cells under a microscope. • Tests for antibodies to the microorganism Antibody tests rely on on the fact that there are specific…

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    Adaptive Immune Response

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    differentiate and secrete many antibodies with the same specificity for the original antigen. B cells express specific antigen receptors (immunoglobulin molecules) on their cell surface during their development and, when mature in the bone marrow, secrete soluble immunoglobulins (antibodies) into the extracellular fluids. Each B cell is genetically programmed to express a surface receptor…

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    Ragweed Correlations While the partial correlations of the allergy skin test neutralization levels of many patients are statistically useful suggestions, they do not necessarily show cross-reactivity. Our next step is to conduct specific laboratory experiments to show us if the suggested cross-reactivity between a pair of correlating antigens actually exists. We needed ragweed antibodies for our lab tests so we purchased several vials of ragweed antigen and used one of these to produce rabbit…

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    1. The immune system is a group of organs including your cells, proteins, and structure of the lymphatic and circulatory system that work together to keep the human body healthy. The immune’s system primary function is to protect all other organs systems from attack such as things like bacteria or prevent you from getting sick. Our body’s immune system includes three major parts. The first main defense of the immune system is known as barriers which is the first line of defense. Barriers…

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    Omalizumab Research Paper

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    Omalizumab, more commonly known by the trade name Xolair, is a monoclonal therapeutic antibody that is currently used to treat severe allergic reactions in diseases such as asthma and chronic idiopathic urticaria. The drug is currently produced at a manufacturing site in France through a partnership between Novartis and Genentech (Novartis). In order to produce this antibody, mice were injected with human IgE. The B cells of the mice were then harvested. The B cells were then fused with myeloma…

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    chosen to be one of the experiment to demonstrate the relationship between Alice and Albert, because of following features, flexibility, inexpensive reagent, long shelf lives, minimal radiation exposure, easy to manipulate, and produces accurate results. The functional link between Immunoglobulin G and antibodies to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides using ELISA techniques are clearly pinpoint in Barrett et al’s (1980) research paper. The authors also uses numbers of parameters while performing the…

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    resistant to a certain disease, that human is known to be immune. The term used to describe an immune individual is referred to as immunity. The primary function of immunity is to become resistant to certain infectious diseases. There are two major immune systems that distinguishes foreign substances. Humoral immunity is a group that consists of antigens that freely circulating in the body. Antigens are foreign substances that include viruses. Humoral immunity involves B cells that recognize…

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    Rituximab Research Paper

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    Rituximab, a chimeric human and murine monoclonal antibody, targets the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B cells and mature B-lymphocytes [55]. The antibody was originally developed for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma [56]. Recently, it has been administered for treating different autoimmune disease. As rituximab is an IgG1 subclass antibody, it crosses the placenta, interfering with fetal and neonatal B cell development and could lead to immune deficiency and raise susceptibility to infections in…

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