Monoclonal Antibodies Research Paper

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2. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES:

2.1. What are Monoclonal Antibodies?

2.1.1. “Clones”
A clone is a group (family) of cells which come from a single parent cell that divides various times and are identical in all ways. In their structure, metabolic characteristics, functions, etc.

2.1.2. “Antibodies”
An antibody is a protein which is produced by the human body’s immune system when it detects a substance that may be harmful (antigens like: bacteria, viruses, chemicals, parasites, etc). Antibodies are sometimes produced when the immune system mistakenly considers a healthy tissue, as a dangerous one, and creates antibodies against it. This is called an “autoimmune disorder”. [8]

2.1.3. “Antigens”
An antigen can be any foreign substance capable
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There are two ways for monoclonal antibody’s growth: one is to place them in laboratory flasks (In Vitro), and the other is in the stomach lining of mice (familiar method). To use this method, spleen cells from the immunized mouse are mixed with the desired antigen and myeloma cells (without the ability to synthesize HGPRT enzyme). This way, hybridoma cells grow indefinitely. [22]

2.2.2. Genetic engineering techniques (Recombinant Antibodies):
The production of this type of antibody requires the use of yeast or viruses instead of mice. In this technique, what is done is that immunoglobulin gene segments are rapidly cloned to create many antibodies which have slightly different amino acid sequences. From all these, the ones with the sequences desired that contain the needed specificities are the chosen ones. [25]

2.3. Action mechanism of Monoclonal Antibodies:

2.3.1. Receptors and
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Arthritis is due to autoimmunity, chemotherapy drugs, also called ‘immunosuppressive drugs’, slow down the rapid reproduction of cells and lowers the amount of certain substances produced by those cells, helping people to feel relief from pain. The 3 most common are: Methotrexate, Azathioprine and Cyclophosphamide. [13]

However, all of these drugs can suppress blood cell formation causing Anemia, Leukopenia/Neutropenia, and Thrombocytopenia. Besides, there can be any kind of organ damage like: which can be found through signs such as: skin rash, easy bruising, nausea, body aches, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, weakness, etc. For example, the liver, and the urinary bladder lining can be damaged. Also, these can cause hair loss and sterility. [13, 12, 5]

2.7.2. Drugs from biologic resources (mAbs):
They are derived from living cells and are big molecules as they are 200 to 1000 times bigger than the small molecule medicines; besides, they are much more complex too. They are used for treatment, diagnosis and prevention of illnesses. [1]

Most biological medicines rise the risk of an infection. Some patients have presented Septicaemia, or reactivation of hepatitis B. There can be symptoms such as: fever, unexplained bruising, bleeding, depression, abdominal or head-ache, etc. However, these side effects are much less than the ones produced from

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