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    Immunology Answers

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    Immunology Journal Article 2 Answers 1. The phenomenon of clonal selection and expansion occurs when T and B cells are activated by an invading pathogen. The leukocytes that have specific receptors for the pathogen are selected for and begin to divide via mitosis. The large number of cells that result from this expansion all have the same receptor for the pathogen that first activated the cells. Since these cells are specific for that pathogen, they are able to fight off the infection caused by the pathogen more effectively. 2. The three cell that function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) are B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. 3. Slow pathogens seem to be much better suited in their role of causing infection because they stay in the body…

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    duty to protect not only ourselves. but also those around us, who need it. We face an infinite amount of threats to our lives every single day and for that reason, we are going to focus on one aspect of our everyday life. The human immune system. Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. With the knowledge provided by scientist, humankind is…

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    The Benefits Of Melanoma

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    science and technology improved, many drugs were introduced to cope from this deadly disease. One of the most successful methods was immunotherapy. In 1891 New York surgeon William B Coley introduced the immunotherapy for cancer. Mr. Coley found out that the cancer traces would completely disappear if the patient has a relentless bacterial infection. In order to create a bacterial infection he injected bacteria into the patient’s tumor. This results in a dramatic stimulation of immune system,…

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    While there, I showcased my abilities: I wrote four medical school courses (Medical Microbiology, Medical Immunology, Cellular Biochemistry, and Metabolic Biochemistry) in addition to other rigorous coursework, shadowed a pediatric pulmonologist, shadowed a gastroenterologist, tutored Tulane undergraduate students in biochemistry, volunteered in the Cardiovascular Recovery Area (CVRA), assisted with boxing classes at my local gym, continued training in mixed martial arts (MMA), received the…

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    this vaccination idea spread its way to England. In England, a young gentleman named Edward Jenner noticed that if you had cowpox, you never contracted smallpox, so he tested his theory. He used variolation against cowpox on a small boy, then he used it again but against smallpox on the same boy. The boy remained healthy and this method became the world's’ first vaccination. He then went on to name this way of protecting someone against disease vacca, which means cow in the Latin language.…

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    Oral Tolerance Essay

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    animal body has evolved a robust immune system to detect and fight against foreign antigens. It plays the role of a vital defence system and prolongs survival of an organism. It has the great ability to distinguish self cells from non-self cells and displays tight regulation of its functions. Yet due to reasons still unclear the underlying processes can sometimes go haywire. The manifestations of such aberrations are seen in disease conditions like: autoimmune disorders, allergies, etc. So how…

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    3. Why a malaria vaccine is required? When microorganism enter the body, the immune system fight these foreign antigens by production of T or B-lymphocytes that produces antibodies, which effectively neutralize foreign invaders. Human body take several days to produces antibodies, while microorganism attack and multiply in the body and produce serious illness before immune system can fit back, this is a reason behind the vaccine manufacturing and development (CDC, 20175; Sarkander et al., 2016;…

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    The Downs Syndrome

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    number of distinct symptoms such as (percentages represent number of DS individuals with respective feature.): Slanted eyes (90%), Enlarged tongue (75%) and Brachycephaly/flattened back of skull (100%) (Domino, 2007). DS also has a significant number of related conditions thought to be associated with the chromosomal deformity. For instance, Autoimmune disorders occur more frequently compared to those who are chromosomally normal (Skogberg et al., 2014). Due to this increased frequency,…

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    HLA plays a key role in either the down- or up-regulation of certain factors that contribute to tumor progression. With this discovery, it has recently been revealed that HLA can actually function to help or harm a host depending on the situation the host finds itself in. A study conducted by the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research sought to find a connection between what caused HLA presence to help or harm a host when dealing with brain cancer. (Smith et…

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    Vaccinations have come under much scrutiny in the past few years with recent outbreaks and the number of people choosing to vaccinate is decreasing (Ambridge, 2015). The debate on compulsory vaccinations has split governments for years (Welch et al., 2014). A vaccine or vaccination is a product that produces immunity from a disease and can be administered through needle injections, orally or by aerosol (vaccines.gov, n.d). Vaccinations work to protect the body from certain diseases by…

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