Adaptive immune system

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    Late Immune Response

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    COMPONENTS OF EARLY AND LATE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN INFECTIONS Early immune response refers to innate immunity, which is the first line of defense. Innate immunity is a non specific defense mechanism that comes into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers for example skin, chemicals in the blood and immune system cells that fight off foreign cells in the body. The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of the antigen. Late immune response refers to adaptive immunity, which is an antigen specific immune response. The adaptive immune response is more complex that the innate. The antigen first must be processed and recognized. Once an antigen has been recognized,…

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    Toll Like Receptors

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    Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins, which play an important role in the innate immune system. They are usually single, they usually span the entire membrane and are expressed on sentinel cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. When the microbe breaches the physical barriers of the body like skin or intestinal mucosa, the TLRs recognize them and initiate an immune response. The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2,…

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    The first thing that happens when the influenza virus infects the host cell, is initiating innate immunity. Innate immunity involves phagocytes binding to the pathogen using its pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), which binds to the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are present on pathogen. After binding to its cell surface, it starts ingesting the pathogen using either phagocytosis or macropinocytosis, and destructs the pathogen either by…

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    The host immune response is important in maintaining the health of periodontal tissues. The presence of pathogens in periodontal pockets will activate innate and adaptive immune responses in an attempt to clear the pathogenic threat as well as promote tissue homeostasis. However, the persistent presence of pathogens can cause the continuous activation of innate and adaptive immune responses; which in turn causes inappropriate inflammatory mediator (cytokine, chemokine, antimicrobial proteins…

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    Macrophage Case Study

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    When infection has been detect, macrophages will release several types of cytokines (inflammatory cytokines) in order to recruit other cells to the area of infection. These cytokines can do that by creating an inflammation in the area of infected tissue. 3. Most immune cells are excluded from entering healthy tissues. Why is this (usually) beneficial for an organism? Many immune cells are excluded from entering healthy tissues because healthy tissues do not need to be inflamed compared to…

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    The acute inflammatory response can be stimulated by an infection, tissue necrosis, foreign bodies, or immune reactions. The stimulus is recognized by receptors on the surface phagocytes, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. The two types of the receptors are the toll like receptors and the inflammasomes. The toll like receptors recognize bacterial and virus DNA and endotoxins and in response produce inflammatory mediators. The inflammasome recognizes microbial or dead cell products or…

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    This project looked at how carbohydrates can have an effect on the ability of proteins to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The blood brain barrier are formed by endothelial cells of the brain capillaries, restricts access to brain cells of blood-borne compounds and facilitates nutrients essential for normal metabolism to reach brain cells. This is a very tight regulation that results in the inability of small and large therapeutic compounds to cross the BBB. Lipidic systems can be…

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    Celiac Disease Case Study

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    pathogenic proteins from innate proteins. Specific gene variants of HLA-DQA1/HLA-DQB1 (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8), trigger the immune system when exposed to gliadin protein, a derivative of gluten, and cause inflammation in the small intestines. HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 have been found in almost all genetically tested CD individuals, with HLA-DQ2 being much more prevalent (NLM, 2016). If someone tests negative for HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 during a diagnostic biopsy for CD, they most like do not have the disease…

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    The etiology and pathogenesis of RA are complex and multifaceted. A range of predetermined (genes) and stochastic (random events and environment) factors contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis.(kelly). The initiation of RA probably begins years before the onset of clinical symptoms. This process involves certain specific genes that can help break tolerance and lead to autoreactivity. It is likely that the earliest phases are marked by repeated activation of innate immunity Cigarette…

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    Il4 Vs Il-4

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    4.1.5.Cytokine and Chemokine in inflammation: Many multifunctional cytokines are present in exocytosis of mast cells which play important roles in late- phase inflammatory response. The mast cell is a source of cytokines such as IL-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, TNF-α (85). IL-1 functions to grow T-helper cells and B cells with its proliferation whereas IL-2 influences the proliferation of T lymphocytes and activation of B lymphocytes. IL-4 helps to differentiate B lymphocytes into plasma cells secret IgE.…

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