Humoral immunity

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    Active Immunity Active immunity is acquired by the production of antibodies (humoral) against antigens, presented by pathogens. This can be categorised as either natural or acquired. The mode of natural methods was by direct contact with the pathogen and enduring the infection, leading to the antibody production by the immune system. This mode of immunity usually takes few days or weeks for initial response however lasts a lifelong. Along with antibody production, a memory of a portion of the antigen was also stored as memory B-cells both in bone marrow and also in circulating blood; thus during subsequent exposure to the same infection, these memory B-cells begin to replicate and produce antibodies much efficiently, e.g. wild hepatitis A virus infection (Baxter, 2007; Portnoy, 2004). There are however, some exceptions e.g. malaria. Individuals develop only a partial immunity against Plasmodium falciparum even after multiple exposure to malaria. Individuals with this type of partial immunity may still be infected but do not display severe disease conditions. It is also important to note that level of risk of infection directly affects the risk of disease severity in malaria-infected individuals (Doolan, Dobano, & Baird, 2009).…

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    Immunity! To start with a personal experience, I have a brother who is almost two years old, Cullen. My family put Cullen in a school that also was a day care for babies. Cullen being around lots of sick babies ultimately got sick too all the time. Thinking about it having him exposed to those germs and bacteria will in the end build a strong immune system for him. So, immunity refers to resistance to disease. The innate defense system and the adaptive defense system. The innate defense system…

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    acquired immunity of which are characterized by being natural or artificial, as well as active or passive. Natural is a result of normal environmental exposure where artificial is due to medical involvement. Active means that an immune response occurred in an individual, including antibody production where passive occurs from the deliverance of preformed antibodies. 1. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when an individual is exposed to a live pathogen of which enters the body by a natural…

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    Type 1 Diabetes

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    The job of the human body’s immune system is to fight against infection by detecting and destroying foreign bacteria and viruses, usually to much success. However, the immune system isn’t perfect, and can make mistakes. Sometimes, the immune system confuses a friendly part of the body for a pathogen, and begins attacking its own cells (Petrov, 2011). When these events occur, the body has contracted what is known as an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders have been rapidly growing problems…

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    Ca2+ fluxes signal leukocyte recruitment to the lung and facilitate transepithelial migration into the airway lumen. Airway epithelial cells are situated well to play a crucial role in host response by providing a physical and an immunological barrier to inhaled pathogens. This physical barrier mediated by epithelial cell-to-cell junctions inhibits pathogens from invading, and the immunological barrier is attained through epithelial cell recognition of bacteria and swift signaling to recruit…

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    The immune system in the human body protects people from infections, diseases, and other foreign substances from causing harm to the body with our first line of defense being our skin. Unfortunately, there are people negatively affected by disorders of the immune system either by environmental factors or genetics. There are immunodeficiencies where the body has the inability to defend against attacks. There is also autoimmunity, which is an overreaction of the immune system. A variety of…

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    Introduction: Immunity is a complex system of study related to expelling pathogenic substances (viruses, bacteria, parasites) from the body. It is separated into two distinct categories: the innate immune system and the acquired immune system. The innate immune system is comprised of the body’s first line of defense which consist of physical barriers and certain cell types. The acquired immune system is more specific, actually focusing in on the individual pathogen in question. Focusing on…

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    Late Immune Response

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    COMPONENTS OF EARLY AND LATE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN INFECTIONS Early immune response refers to innate immunity, which is the first line of defense. Innate immunity is a non specific defense mechanism that comes into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers for example skin, chemicals in the blood and immune system cells that fight off foreign cells in the body. The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of…

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    Meditation Benefits

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    Meditation is a viable treatment option for patients seeking to enhance their physical well-being. This paper will provide a theoretical framework on this topic before making its own argument. Everyone should seek to benefit their physical well-being because the majority of individuals are not as healthy as they would hope to be and our physical well-beings are of utmost importance. One approach that a multitude of individuals have utilized to enhance their physical well-being is meditation.…

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    an extra sixty to ninety minutes per night (Huffington Post). When we are stressed, we may have difficulty sleeping at night, but we have to do our best to get at least eight hours of sleep each night. Lack of sleep, on the other hand, lowers our immunity and makes us more susceptible to physical illness. It is a stressor, which in turn can leave us vulnerable to other stressors (Bodger). Not only is…

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