Innate immune system

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    The Innate Immune System

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    The innate immune system is the defense mechanism that is activated immediately or shortly after the body is exposed to invading microorganisms.1 This system is quick in response and does not have a memory, meaning it doesn’t need previous exposure to the foreign microbe’s antigen before it can be activated.2 The adaptive immune system consists of antigen-specific immune responses.2 This system is slow in response because after it is exposed to an antigen, it needs time to process the antigen and then recruit the proper cells to elicit an immune response.2 Thus the adaptive immune system requires more time.2 The adaptive immune system does have a memory because subsequent exposure to the same antigen will trigger a much faster response.2…

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    Innate Immune System

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    Innate immunity constitutes the first line of defense and is fundamental for the recognition and the initiation of an inflammatory response against microorganism. Maintenance of homeostasis is a primary function of the innate immune system and it is achieved through immune surveillance by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). The PRR’s are predominantly expressed by cells of the…

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    The system produces a number of substances include cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) such as defensins, bacteriolytic enzymes such as lysozyme etc. The production of these substances ensures that the microorganisms are destroyed before they get an opportunity to cause infections [4]. However, S. aureus has developed mechanisms, which enhance the evasion of the host immune system. The host’s body produces effector proteins after microbial invasion; nevertheless, S. aureus produces molecules…

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    1. The innate immune system, also considered the first line of defense, is made up of different mechanisms that protect the host from infecting organisms. This system allows for immediate response to infection, and is found in all classes of plant and animal life. Though the innate immune system does provide immediate defense against an infecting agent, it does not provide long term protective immunity to the host, therefore it does not have memory. The innate immune system utilizes protective…

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    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the innate immune system and represent a first line of defense against pathogens and tumor cells. Involved in immune surveillance, NK cells patrol the body looking for infected or cancerous cells. While other immune cells recognize the presence of antibodies on the MHC receptor of infected cells before a response is initiated, NK cells have the ability to respond to stressed cells in the absence of the MHC receptor, allowing a much faster immune…

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    adaptive immunity. Discuss at least one specific condition that can impair the immune system’s ability to function normally The immune system defends the body two different ways innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body’s natural way to fight against disease or pathogens consider this the body’s first line of defense against invasion. Innate immunity recognizes when something is not native to the body and attacks microbes preventing the infection from spreading. Innate…

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    Pneumonic Plague

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    dockyards (Barnett 1948). Other studies have examined the relationship between the presence of garbage and plague cases. In 1994 there was a plague outbreak in Surat and “during the plague, people were scared of garbage” this lead to creation of sanitary wards and garbage removal programs. To this day there has yet to have been another plague outbreak in Surat post garbage removal systemization (Shah 1997). Another study looking at garbage removal and plague cases concluded that by having…

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    Celiac Disease Case Study

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    protein distinction in the body, separating pathogenic proteins from innate proteins. Specific gene variants of HLA-DQA1/HLA-DQB1 (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8), trigger the immune system when exposed to gliadin protein, a derivative of gluten, and cause inflammation in the small intestines. HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 have been found in almost all genetically tested CD individuals, with HLA-DQ2 being much more prevalent (NLM, 2016). If someone tests negative for HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 during a diagnostic biopsy for…

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    The host immune response is important in maintaining the health of periodontal tissues. The presence of pathogens in periodontal pockets will activate innate and adaptive immune responses in an attempt to clear the pathogenic threat as well as promote tissue homeostasis. However, the persistent presence of pathogens can cause the continuous activation of innate and adaptive immune responses; which in turn causes inappropriate inflammatory mediator (cytokine, chemokine, antimicrobial proteins…

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    portal of entry; (2) attach itself to a host cell and (3) evade the body’s defense mechanisms long enough to produce harmful changes. In this research paper, I will discuss the differences between innate and adaptive immunity along with the chemical and physical factors that are involve in these immunities. It is easy to cluster the structures, cells, and chemicals that act against pathogens into two main lines of defense, each of which overlaps and reinforce each other. The first line of…

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