Essay On Coombs Test

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Introduction There are multiple Immunological techniques or tests used for starting and measuring an immune response (1). Antibodies and antigens found in our immune system is done by immunoassays (2). The majority of immunological tests are based on the adaptive immune system. Substances recognized by our immune system are antigens. Injections are done by a trained health care professional to test for an immune response. The antibodies work together to fight antigens. Immunologists can inject antigens into the body and observe the reactions. Out of the five antibodies, IgG and IgE are most common when testing hypersensitivities (3). Two tests that are commonly used today are the Coombs test, which deals with pregnant women’s Rh factor being …show more content…
A false-positive test occurs when a healthy person has a reaction to the skin test, but there is no sign of being infected with M. tuberculosis (6). Reasons why the test may read false-positive is because the patient has already been in contact with a type of mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis, an injection of BCG has been administered in the past to a non-resident of the U.S. (9), the test was read wrong, or the wrong antigen was used during the test (6). False-negative tests occur when the patient has never been in contact with M. tuberculosis, …show more content…
Type II hypersensitivities are tested by counting the number of IgG antibodies that match certain proteins (11). Cytotoxicity is when the foreign antigen is tagged with an antibody such as IgG or IgM (17). The natural killer cells recognize the tagged antibody as a foreign substance, and try to kill the cell (17). The Coombs test serum is made by injecting IgM or IgG from a human serum into a rabbit to start an immune response (16). The antiserum is then centrifuged to remove what was unable to agglutinate (16). The clear liquid that is left is combined with the mother’s blood sample to check for agglutination. If agglutination is present, the mother’s Rh negative blood will attack the fetus’s Rh positive blood because the mother’s immune system is trying to get rid of the foreign entity. The Coombs test is in vitro because the human blood is tested in a rabbit. The Coombs test is for pregnant women and

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