Antibody

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    antigens or pathogens. Antigens can also stimulate the production of antibodies. Antibodies have the capability of recognizing and destroying pathogens. However, antibodies are rarely ever involved in cell-medicated immunity. Cell-medicated immunity involve T cells and responds to viruses, tumor cells, or transplanted cells. There are also two types of immunities: active and passive acquired immunity. Active acquired immunity is antibodies being produced…

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    Rituximab Research Paper

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    Rituximab, a chimeric human and murine monoclonal antibody, targets the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B cells and mature B-lymphocytes [55]. The antibody was originally developed for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma [56]. Recently, it has been administered for treating different autoimmune disease. As rituximab is an IgG1 subclass antibody, it crosses the placenta, interfering with fetal and neonatal B cell development and could lead to immune deficiency and raise susceptibility to infections in…

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    Human Immune System

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    According to Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM (2007, chapter 42), “They include fatigue, fever and General ill-feeling . Tests that may be done to diagnose an autoimmune disorder may include Anti-nuclear antibody tests.” The test measures the levels of blood antibodies that work against the individuals. The antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test can help recognized compromise in the body such as Rheumatoid arthritis. Another important auto immune disorder test is C-reactive protein (crp). This test recognizes…

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    Cross Matching Essay

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    products. Cross Matching is used to make sure that the specific donor blood that will be used during transfusion does not react with the patient's blood.The purpose of cross matching is to discover the existence of antibodies in the recipient against the red blood cells of the donor. The antibodies attach themselves to the red blood cells of the person donating, after transfusion. When doing a cross match there can be a few minor implications such as extra bleeding or bruising. When doing a…

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    Elisa Research Paper

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    technique to detect and quantify substances like proteins, antibodies, and hormones. The target antigen is immobilized to the bottom of the well and then an antigen-specific detection antibody is added. The detection antibody makes it possible to measure results. The three most common formats of ELISA would be direct assay, indirect assay, and sandwich assay. In direct assay, the antigen immobilizes to the bottom of the well where a labeled antibody attaches to it. In indirect assay, the the…

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    Lymphatic System

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    Lymphatic System’s Role in Immunity The human body has built in defense mechanisms to aid against foreign substances, pathogens, toxins and diseases. The type of immunity used by the body depends on the type of pathogen and whether that pathogen has already entered the body. In cases where the pathogen is inside the body, an internal defense is used to aid in fighting the pathogen. The body may start running a fever or start inflammation to rid itself of the pathogen. In cases where the…

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    The etiology and pathogenesis of RA are complex and multifaceted. A range of predetermined (genes) and stochastic (random events and environment) factors contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis.(kelly). The initiation of RA probably begins years before the onset of clinical symptoms. This process involves certain specific genes that can help break tolerance and lead to autoreactivity. It is likely that the earliest phases are marked by repeated activation of innate immunity Cigarette smoke…

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    Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: The Rare, Acquired, Chronic Disease of Blister Formation Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita (EBA) is a rare, acquired, autoimmune disease that produces the formation of blisters on the skin after minor trauma (“Epidermolysis Bullosa Clinic”, 2015). Due to small rubs and strains, blisters are commonly seen on the skin. EBA does not only affect the skin, but it can also affect the eyes, nails, mouth, esophagus, and lungs. (Prabhu, Ramesh, Rekka, Swathi, 2011). EBA…

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    Direct Coombs Test Report

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    Direct Coombs test is also called Direct Antiglobulin Test or DAT. This test is used for the detection of IgG or C3 antibodies which are attached to the RBC’s surface. These antibodies are important to be detected because they might sometimes cause anemia due to destruction of RBCs. DAT is mainly done on blood samples of newborns, especially when a newborn is suffering from jaundice. • Procedure: 1. Place the sample of RBCs to be tested in a 5 % suspension of isotonic saline. 2. Using a…

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    disseminates, and the host response shifts to a Th2 type immune reaction. The hallmark of this infection stage is production of detectable serum antibodies. A positive relationship has been shown between the level of serum antibody production and the number of M. paratuberculosis isolated from fecal samples (8, 27). A second possible explanation for the diversity in antibody-antigen binding patterns is host response variability to the infection. Paratuberculosis has…

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