Laboratory Diagnosis Essay

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Laboratory Diagnosis
Monitoring Parameters
• Tourniquet Test
Acts as an emergency diagnostic tool whereby formation of more than 20 petechiae per square inch indicates a positive tourniquet test. A circle of 2.5 cm in diameter may be drawn and the number of petechiae in it is counted. More than five petechiae indicates positive test.
• Complete Blood Cell Count
Blood tests present with lowered total white blood cell, platelet and neutrophil counts and a 20% or more increase in haematocrit values suggests haemoconcentration. Thus, monitoring should be done every 3-4 hours in cases of severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Thrombocytopenia is observed with platelet count of lesser than 100,000 cells/μL. Thus, monitoring
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Presence of anti-dengue antibodies inhibits agglutination of RBC. Paired sera are obtained during acute phase and convalescent phase of the dengue with a time interval of more than seven days.

In primary infection, the acute-phase serum has low level of antibodies and will later have gradual elevation of HI antibody titres. In secondary infection, there is a rapid rise in HI antibody titres, normally going beyond 1:1280. Prevention and control
• Public Health
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This vaccine, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent vaccine whereby all the structural genes (prM and E) of all four dengue serotype viruses are obtained and inserted to replace those in the yellow fever virus of the yellow fever 17D vaccine. The chimeric virus undergoes replication and attenuation occurs between the yellow fever genes of the chimera. After giving at least two doses to human volunteers, higher rates of tetravalent neutralizing antibodies were achieved and a higher rate of seroconversion was seen in subjects that had previous immunity to yellow

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