1. A cell is eukaryotic because
Is generally larger and much more sophisticated than prokaryotic cells due to the presence of a complex series of membranes that divide a typical eukaryotic cell into compartment.
Eukaryotic cell has an organized nucleus with a nuclear envelop.
Has membrane bound organelles
Contain linear DNA molecule that are larger than the (circular) DNA molecules in prokaryotic cells and, in association with proteins, form structures called chromosomes.
2. Insulin, a peptide hormone, which is released into the blood by the pancreatic beta cell when the blood sugar level is too high (hyperglycaemia) in a regulated secretion pathway to maintain normal blood sugar level (Normoglycaemia), and its synthesis…
membrane works as a barrier for the cell. Since it is semi-permeable, it allows some substances/particles into the cell but denies access to others.
The cytoplasm is the fluid within each individual cell that surrounds the organelles. This is the 'place' where the organelles complete their individual tasks.
The Rough Endoplasmic(RER) Reticulm is a part of a series of connected 'hallways' that carry materials to various parts of the cytoplasm. The RER has many ribosomes attached to it and it…
Cell culture & cell counting:
Introduction: Cell culture is the method of removal of cells from their respective animal or plant source, followed by their growth in a favourable artificial environment. These cells can be removed directly from tissues or fragmented using enzymatic or mechanical method. These cells can be obtained from the already established cell line or cell strain.
Short protocol:In this protocol, initially cells were washed to remove adherent cells, incubated and…
evolutionary time that has occurred.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are in a class of proteins called molecular chaperones. (Kiang, J.; G, Tsokos. 1998). They are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, in the cytosol, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. In humans they have a relatively long half-life of about 2 days (Baneyx, F. 2008). HSP70 are a specific type which are normally found in very low amounts within a cell, they can be expressed in response to external stimuli.…
A cell is the basic unit of living organisms. From single cellular organisms to humans to trees, cells compose all of them. However, cells are split into two domains, those being Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are all unicellular and are less advanced than eukaryotes; meaning that they lack a nucleus and only have a nucleoid region. They also lack membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes are then broken into two kingdoms, Bacteria and Archaea. Bacteria are the less advanced of the two and…
The Cell Membrane is one of the most important
parts of the cell. If not for the cell membrane it
would be extremely easy for things to invade the
cell; this is because on of the cell membranes job
is to control what come in and out of the cell (i.e.
ions, viruses, etc). Also the cell membrane is
what helps hold the cell and all of its organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum (AKA the ER), smooth and
rough whats the difference? The smooth ER does not
have any ribosomes while the rough ER is covered in…
In cell theory, it is known that all cells arise from pre-existing living cells, through cell division. In cell division, this involves the supplying of identical genetic material from the parent cell, DNA and protein, to two daughter cells. It results in the daughter cells having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. We need cell division as it is used in reproduction of new species, growth and repair of damaged cells and tissues, and to reduce the cell size. Larger cells are…
For the purpose of this report we will be focusing mainly on the base level of cells, and those of an animal.
Within all organisms we find cells, they form the life blood of their being. Cells contain the blue prints for all life forms known as D.N.A.
While complex, cellular structures can also be relatively simplistic in design. Each component of the cell plays a vital role, working together in harmony to provide life.
Initially we must look at the cell membrane. The cell…
Jorunal #2 Molecules and Cells
1. During the first weeks of Bio 001 lectures, we discussed “what it means to be alive”, and then we discussed the concept of “emergent properties” in the origin of functional molecules and cells. What is meant by “emergent properties” in biology?
In biology, emergent properties are when parts of an organism interact with one another to perform a specific function. It is important to note that an emergent property is not exhibited by one part alone. Usually,…
The checkpoints in the cell cycle
There are several checkpoints the eukaryote cell cycle that controls the cells from proceeding from one to the next phase of the cell cycle. The point where the cells start to enter the cell cycle is at the G1 checkpoint, which is also known as the restriction checkpoint. At this point, the Retinoblastoma interacts with the E2F, which is the transcription factor to make cyclin E causes the E2F to be inhibited upon interaction. Cells with damaged DNA get…