Golgi apparatus

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    proteins and play a vital role in protein synthesis. Its long and far-reaching structure allows it to perform its function more efficiently; helping transport substances around the cell, also increasing its surface area to volume ratio allowing more ribosome’s to be situated on it, speeding up protein production. As the protein enters the Rough ER, our craft follows closely behind. The protein is being further processed by enzymes, adding polysaccharides to form complex protein sugars known as glycoproteins. We follow the protein through the cavity of the rough ER and through a small region of smooth ER to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. It then takes those big molecules, packages them in vesicles and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell. In the Golgi apparatus, the polysaccharide groups added in the ER are further modified and then packaged into vesicles. “Yasmin! The protein is now exiting the cell. Watch from a distance as things might get a little rough HAHAHA” laughs captain Xerox through the speaker, and a funny chap he is. As the vesicle nears the cell membrane it exits through exocytosis. What a journey of a life time. The craft was now drifting in the cytoplasm, waiting for the concentration gradient in order to leave the cell. Out of my rear view mirror I see a relatively small vesicle moving towards our craft. Without notice, it attacks our craft.…

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    Past: The Golgi-Apparatus was first discovered by the Italian physician, after which it was named, Camillo Golgi in the year 1897 (but only reported the discovery in 1898), and it appeared in scientific literature for the first time in 1910, but its existence was only proved later in the year 1954 with the help of electron-microscopic studies. Camillo Golgi was able to identify this organelle by using a special staining technique, which he called ‘Black Reaction’, which made it possible to…

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    The Cell Membrane is one of the most important parts of the cell. If not for the cell membrane it would be extremely easy for things to invade the cell; this is because on of the cell membranes job is to control what come in and out of the cell (i.e. ions, viruses, etc). Also the cell membrane is what helps hold the cell and all of its organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum (AKA the ER), smooth and rough whats the difference? The smooth ER does not have any ribosomes while the rough ER is covered in…

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    covers the organelle and contain its skin as the inner membrane folds over many times and create layered structures. The energy made is called ATP. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. It’s a single nucleotide with two extra energy storing phosphate groups. When food molecules are broken down inside cells, some of the energy in the molecules is stored temporarily in ATP. Cells need a steady supply of ATP to function. The Golgi apparatus helps the cell maintain homeostasis by modifying,…

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    Organelles Essay

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    When liver cells are exposed to a drug, the amount of smooth ER and its detoxifying enzymes increase. The body’s tolerance of a drug can strengthen which means that more of the drug will be needed in order to achieve the desired effect. This is how addiction can occur because a person will need more and more of a drug in order for the drug to work. An organelle named the Golgi apparatus works closely with the ER; it refines, stores, receives, and distributes chemical products of the cell.…

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    Lens Fiber Differentiation and its effects on certain organelles. This writing exercise analyzes two separate but related scientific articles, “The fate of the Golgi Apparatus and the Endoplasmic reticulum During Lens Fiber Cell Differentiation” and “Coincident Loss of Mitochondria and Nuclei During Lens Fiber Cell Differentiation” both which analyze and study Lens Fiber Differentiation. The writing assignment will be based on four sections:(1) Background of the research (2) Methods used…

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    Animal Cell Structure

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    specialized cell I have chosen to focus on is a nerve cell within the brain. “The bulk of the brain is made up of structural cells termed glial cells and astrocytes. Lying in amongst these cells are neurons, specialized cells that conduct electrical impulses along their processes. It has been estimated that the average human brain contains about 100 billion neurons and, on average, each neuron is connected to 1000 other neurons. This results in the generation of vast and complex neural networks…

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    hydrolases pH levels being neutralised by the cytosol (Cooper, G. 2000). How the Lysosomes breaks down unwanted cell debris begins with an unwanted debris, for example a damaged section of a cell, which form a double membrane, called an auto phagosome, which moving towards the edge of the lysosome, this is where the plasma membrane creates an oral cavity where the damaged cell is absorbed into and the digestive enzymes are the released in controlled amounts, due to a hydrogen pump, and begin to…

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    Sarcolema

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    Within the skeletal muscle cells, there are many organelles. Each cell contains a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma, covering the outer surface of the cell (Ivy Rose). The sarcolemma protects the muscle cell and allows for its shape to be kept. From the sarcolemma, tunnel-like extensions called transverse tubules pass through the muscle fiber (Ivy Rose). These transverse tubules connect the sarcoplasmic reticulum with the sarcolemma (Graham and Parker 117). The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a…

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    A. The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates. The phospholipids and cholesterol both help create the roof of the cell membrane and they both regulate the fluidity of the cell membrane. The proteins in the cell membrane help provide a structural function, transport function, and signaling function all within the membrane (Yeagle, 1989). The carbohydrates are on the external side of the cell membrane. Also the carbohydrates provide a signaling function…

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