Ribosome

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    Chop1

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    elongating ribosomes, and thus contributes to reduced CHOP proteins in non-stressed conditions (Young et al., 2016). However, CHOP proteins under stressed conditions, are synthesized by the ribosomal bypass model. In the bypass model, the scanning ribosomes ignore the initiation codons of CHOP1 uORF in part because of the poor Kozak of its initiation codons; instead, the ribosomes recognize the downstream initiation codon of CHOP CDS and direct translation of the CHOP CDS (Palam et al., 2011). Likewise, the CHOP2 uORF is suggested to control CHOP translation in a similar fashion to the CHOP1 uORF as illustrated in the luciferase reporter assay (Figure 6). Although CHOP2 uORF is suggested to confer regulation of CHOP translation as described for CHOP1, the CHOP2 uORF lacks the inhibitory sequence coding sequence, i.e. IFIHHHT, positioned in the CHOP1 uORF. Therefore, the notion of regulated CHOP protein synthesis relies on another mechanism for CHOP2 mRNA. The CHOP2 uORF overlaps out-of-frame with the CHOP CDS, suggesting that the uORF serves as an inhibitor to translation by allowing translating ribosomes to elongate past the initiation codon of the CHOP CDS. After translation of the CHOP2 uORF, ribosomes would be 3’ of the of the CDS initiation codon and require substantial 3’ to 5’ scanning, which is not thought to occur. It is suggested that the CHOP1 mRNA is subject to nonsense mediated decay, or similar mRNA surveillance systems that may be triggered by stalled ribosomes…

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    Eukaryotic cells will bind with the ribosomes at the position of the recently added 5’G cap, and will then scan through the non-translated region mRNA molecule until it reaches the AUG start codon, where translation will occur. This is dissimilar to prokaryotic ribosomes, where the position of binding is at point known as the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, approximately 8 bases towards the 5’ direction of the mRNA strand of the start codon, delivering the ribosome to the exact position of the AUG…

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    Rna Synthesis Essay

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    RRNA is the key component of ribosomes, which are account for translation. The role of Hira and H3.3 on rRNA transcription prompts me to investigate whether global translational process is compromised. The defects on handful ribosomal protein (Rpl9 and Rpl10A) indirectly support this idea. However, only a detailed measurement of translation genome-widely will provide and reveal what are the key players that are required for developmental competence and which of these are shortage in Hira…

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    inner membrane known as cristae that increases its surface area to volume ratio, allowing more chemical reactions to occur speeding up production. A little fun fact, Mitochondrion also have their own DNA and ribosome’s floating in the matrix. A truly vital organelle.” “Isn’t that amazing? We better hurry up now or otherwise we might miss the concentration gradient on the way out” replied Yasmin, pressing down on the accelerator, speeding towards the centre of the cell, to the nucleus “WOOHOO!”…

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    because the DNA holds the amino acid codes for all the possible proteins a cell can make. So the role of the nucleus is to produce a copy of the DNA which is found in the nucleus to produce mRNA. Once the mRNA has been produced and left the nucleus it then catches onto the ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm. This is where the information from the DNA that was copied in the nucleus to produce the mRNA is read (translated). The Ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic…

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    Ribosomes Essay

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    They are made within the nucleolus from 60% RNA and 40% protein, and consist of two subunits, one large and one small. When produced, the subunits stay separate to exit through the nuclear pores: it is only because of their miniscule size that they can fit through. Many ribosomes then bind themselves to the RER, although some stay free in the cytoplasm. Free and bound ribosomes both create polypeptide chains, which are used to make proteins. To create a polypeptide chain the large and small…

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    The Synthesis Of RNA

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    A. RNA doesn’t have thymine. RNA uses Uracil. RNA can leave the nucleus. B. mRNA- mRNA is called the messenger DNA. This RNA can leave the nucleus and delivers information to other parts of the cell. tRNA- Transfers amino acids to proteins. Ribosomal RNA- Forms parts of ribosomal subunits C. Proteins must be synthesised constantly in order to use the codes from genes over and over again. 2. A. During transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. It then…

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    Ribosome Challenge

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    The article, “Does the Ribosome Challenge our Understanding of the RNA World?,” by Anthony Poole was published in the Journal of Molecular Evolution. RNA world hypothesis is a model framework explaining the origin of life on earth like genetically translated proteins and deoxynucleic acid from the point of view of ribonucleic acid based hypothetical systems. It suggests that ribonucleic acid existed before the deoxynucleic acid molecule. Chemical and Darwin’s evolutionary theories attempt to…

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    Mrna And Codon Essay

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    abundance might be connected. Codon brings the genetic material that could translate to protein. Each codon contains triplet nucleotide, and each of them code for an amino acid, two different nucleotide sequences can encode the identical protein. There is some special codon that code for the initiation and termination of translate. The most common start codon is AUG, and the stop codon are UAG, UGA, and UAA. tRNA has a tertiary structure, and the anticodon loop of it contains the anti-codon…

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    Eukaryotic Cells

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    According to this theory the mitochondria would have once been an aerobic bacteria that has been engulfed by a larger cell, but wasn’t destroyed as a mutually beneficial relationship was formed. It is widely accepted that some if not all modern eukaryotic cells originated in this form. This theory also explains why the mitochondria contains its own ribosomes (Bolsover, S., Hyams, J., Jones, S., Shephard, E. and White, H. 1997) and circular genome very similar to that of a bacterial genome…

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