Protein Synthesis Between Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes

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A Comparison of Protein Synthesis between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

The different fundamental organisation of genetic material and organelles between eukaryotes and prokaryotes leads to dissimilar processes of protein synthesis. The larger eukaryotes have a more intricate pathway associated with protein synthesis, due to both the biochemical structure of organelles and enzymes, and also the transport of genetic material within cell. In this essay I hope to explore the differences of gene expression between these two types of cells.
A key difference between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes is that Eukaryotes contain monocistronic mRNA molecules, meaning that the molecule will only code for cistron, and henceforth one protein. Conversely, Prokaryotic
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The 5’ end of the mRNA molecule is joined to a methylated guanosine triphosphate via a 5 '-5 '-triphosphate bond. This addition of the 5’ cap ensures that the mRNA molecule is recognised by the ribosome. At the 3’ end of the mRNA molecule, a poly Adenine tail approximately 100-250 nucleotide bases long is covalently bound, for the function of transcription termination, protection from mRNA nuclease degradation and the transportation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The post processing of the mRNA strand is exclusive for Eukaryotes, and is not present in Prokaryotic …show more content…
Conversely, the smaller prokaryotic at a size of 70S, are composed of a 30S and a 50S subunit. Before translation occurs, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes must be initiated by a number of enzymes to prepare it for protein synthesis. In Eukaryotes, the pre-initiation complex is much larger, being composed of 9 initiation factor enzymes. Prokaryotes have far fewer initiators, with three overall. The two pIF1 and pIF3 initiators will bind to the small 30S subunit, attaching the ribosome to the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence of the mRNA strand. The pIF2 initiator will bind to the initiator tRNA charged with formyl-methionine, to bring the tRNA together to bind with the small 30S subunit, at which point the large 50S subunit will bind and the initiation factors will leave, and translation will

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