Similarities Between Plant And Animal Cell

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Observation of plant and animal cells through a light microscope.

A cell is the most basic structure of any living organism and is capable of independently reproducing. Cells can be grouped into two categories, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. In a eukaryotic cell there are small organelles that carry out specific functions which can be compared to the organs in the human body. Some of these organelles include the nucleus, which holds the cells DNA, mitochondria, which produce ATP from glucose and oxygen, known as cellular respiration, and the golgi body which packages and processes different substances leaving the cell. Prokaryotic cells are the simpler of the two cells and are single celled organisms, such as bacteria, that don’t contain organelles.
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The animal cell is rounded and irregular in terms of shape whilst the plant cell is usually a fixed rectangular shape. This is because the plant cell has a cell wall around the plasma membrane giving the cell support and rigidity which aids the structure of the cell which the animal cell doesn’t have, this was visible throughout the practical. Both cells have a nucleus that was also visible during the practical. The majority of the plant cells had their nucleus pushed to one side this is because there is a large water filled vacuole in the middle of the plant cell that is critical for the purification and general homeostasis within the cell. The animal cell had a more central nucleus in most cases because it does not have one of these large vacuoles, instead it has one or more small vacuoles scattered throughout the cell. The plant cell has some other organelles that are exclusive to plant cells and can’t be found in animal cells but the majority of organelles found in animal cells can be found in both. Chloroplasts are one of these, they are responsible for photosynthesis within the cell. This explains why all of the characteristics found in the animal cell during the practical were also found in the plant cell, but the cell wall was visible in only the plant …show more content…
As a light microscope used light to resolve the specimen its results are limited. However, the transmission electron microscope uses a high voltage beam which passes through a thin sample showing the internal structure of the cell. This would allow the cell to be viewed in a lot more detail than what it was with a light microscope, however the image is only ever produced in shades grey. If a scanning electron microscope was used during the observation you would be able to see the outer surface of the cell but you wouldn’t be able to see any of the organelles as a beam of electrons scans only the top layer of the cell.
The cells could have been easier visualized if the slides had no air bubbles in it and more care was taken when placing on the cover slip by putting it on more swiftly to avoid these. Meaning that the sample would be visible at any place on the slide and there wouldn’t be trouble finding the cells under the microscope.
Plant and animal cells have similar organelles, with the exception of additional plant organelles, however few visible through a light microscope. In a plant cell, the nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane and the cytoplasm were visible through a light microscope. In the animal cell, the nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm were visible through a light microscope. The shape of both cells were easily seen and some similarities and differences were

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