Double Membrane System: A Case Study

Analyze the anatomical structure of ten different organelles in the cell and their respective functions.
Chloroplast:
Its main function is photosynthesis trapping energy from the sun and producing sugar from carbon dioxide. Its structure is made up of a double membrane system. They are known as the outer and inner membranes. The inner membrane surrounds the stroma and grana other words known as stacks of thylakoids (NCBI, 2016).

Endoplasmic reticulum:
Its main function is translation and folding of new proteins across the ER membrane. Its structure is made up of a single membrane system (BSCB, 2016). There are 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum rough endoplasmic and smooth. They appear to be separate however they are sub compartments of the
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It functions consist of absorption and secretion (enzymes, mucus, and other substances) through ciliary action. It is located in the digestive tract (stomach to the anal canal), excretory ducts, gallbladder, small bronchi, certain parts of the uterus, and uterine tube.

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar epithelium:
It is a single layer of cells. Some are described as being: different in height (some do not reach the free surface), the nuclei are seen at various levels, and can consist of mucus secreting goblet cells and bear cilia. Its function is to secrete mainly of mucus and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action. It is located in a male’s sperm carrying ducts, the trachea of the upper respiratory tract (Antranik, 2016).

Stratified Squamous epithelium:
It is a thick membrane consisting of several cell layers, the basal cells are cuboidal/columnar and metabolically active, the surface cells are flat, in the keratinized form, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead, the basal cells are active in mitosis and create the cells of the more superficial layers. Its function is to protect underlying tissues in areas that may be harmed. A non-keratinized form can be located in moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, vagina, urethra, and anus. However, a keratinized form can be located in the epidermis of the skin a dry membrane (Antranik,
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Areolar is a fibrous connective tissue, loosely packed, to hold tissue layers together. It is located in the skin, which binds the outer layers of skin to the muscles located beneath. It can be found in or near the mucous membranes, blood vessels, organs, and nerves (SIU Med, 2016).
Adipose is a fatty tissue is a form of loose connective tissue that stores energy, insulates and cushions the body. It can be found in forms of a thick layer beneath the skin, around the kidneys, around the heart, yellow marrow of the long bones, and inside of the eye socket (SIU Med, 2016).
Fibrous is a tissue composed of bundles of collagenous white fibers between which are rows of connective tissue cells. It can be found in ligaments, tendons, and membranes. Its function is to provide a mechanically strong bond providing support and protection (SIU Med, 2016).
Bone tissue is a rigid connective tissue, internally supports body structures, very active tissue, and heals faster than cartilage. It can be found: on the cranium, vertebral column, clavicles, acromium (process of the shoulder), the humerus, the radius, ulna, and forearm (SIU Med,

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