Specialised Nerve Impulses

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Neurons

Neurons are specialised nerve cells that create and generate nerve impulses; the neurons are made up of dendrites, cell body and an axon.

What are dendrites responsible for?

Dendrites are branching projections that receive messages (impulses) from other neurons.

What are axons responsible for?

Axons are tube like structures that transmits signals over a great distance to other neurons, muscles and organs, although not all neurons have axons.

What is the cell body responsible for?

The cell body is responsible for producing proteins; the cell body also carries organelles including the nucleus and mitochondria of every neuron.

There are billions of neurons found in the nervous tissue, these neurons vary in size and are sensitive
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Granulocytes have granules which are located in the cytoplasm, they can also change their shape, engulf microbes and foreign material like bacteria, they are very important as they protect the body from infection.

Lymphocytes are another form of white blood cells that are significant in the immune system; they are smaller than granulocytes, contain a nucleus and a clear cytoplasm. The lymphocytes produce antibodies, these antibodies neutralise the antigens, which are found on the surface of a microbe or pathogen giving them an identity for the body to remember, to stop them from multiplying.

Another type of white blood cells includes Monocytes, monocytes are larger than lymphocytes and contain a large nucleus that is round and has a clear cytoplasm. Monocytes are good and quick at engulfing and absorbing pathogen as they have to ability to move away from the circulatory blood vessels straight to the area of the
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Calcium salts give the bone its hard texture and are shaped around the collagen fibres.

What are collagen fibres?

The collagen fibre allows the bones to bend under strain and stops the risk of the bones fracturing due to them being brittle.

Bones are able to withstand weight; the bones protect tissues such as the heart, lungs and brain, as they are the weaker tissues. Some bones contain bone marrow whereas others the bones marrow produces blood cells that are vital for the body

The bones cells are called osteocytes, these cells are located in the matrix on rings which are known as lamellae, the rings system is called osteone or a haversain system. It is in the osteone where the blood vessels and nerves pass through the hollow centre.

The responsibilities of the bones is to allow tendons to attach themselves to them, provide support for soft tissue to defend them from injury, for example the ribs shelter the heart and the lungs to protects them as they play an important role in the body.

Compact bones

What is compact bone?

The skeleton is made up of 80% compact bone; the other 20% consists of cancellous bone, they are both found in the long bones of the arms and

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