Pros And Cons Of Gene Control

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The Basics of Gene Expression and Control

Genetics is a very diverse field of science, because it encompasses so many aspects of not only what happens inside organisms, but also how offspring relate to parents and ancestors and many other processes. Although every bit of genetics is important, many things in an organism would not be possible without the expression of genes. Through expressions of genes, organisms provide for themselves and "fulfill" what is the basis of their genetic possibility. These processes of transcriptional gene control, translational gene control, and post-translational gene control helps make key components that help an organism function in many ways. The Central Dogma of Molecular biology, an idea that was
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There are four broad stages to this process that include: promoter recognition, initiation, synthesis, and termination. Each stage of transcription determines something different about parts of gene expression. For example, transcription can be turned on or blocked from happening. Differences in initiation can decide if transcription even takes place or not. Also, synthesis could determine "how much" transcription is necessary. Positive control is the method that can help start the transcription through protein binding and is often regulated by things such as glucose. On the other hand, negative control can help stop transcription when necessary. This type of control also involves the binding of a protein, but it is a repressing protein as opposed to an activator. Although transcription is different in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, there are many similarities. In transcription in bacteria, transcription officially begins when an RNA polymerase and a sigma subunit bind at two different sites at a promoter. An open promoter complex is formed when DNA unwinds in this area and RNA synthesis starts because of a holenzyme. This is where regulation really comes into play, because transcription will continue as long as it has enough of what it needs until it hits a termination sequence. After which, the brand new produced RNA and enzyme are let go from the template. Until then, the …show more content…
mRNA is translated from a five posion to a three position direction. The beginning end of this translated polypeptide is called the N- terminus, while the "three" end of the polypeptide is the C- terminus. The C terminus is where the stop codon is located and where translation processes end for that mRNA template. The main four phases of translation are pre- initiation, initiation, elongation, and termination. A basic transcription process starts out with a start codon where translation begins by ribosome initiation. These ribosomes move through the mRNA to generate new subunits of proteins. tRNA and mRNA sequences interact through codons and anticodons and tRNA is what brings amino acids for the use of the ribosomes in translation; therefore, amono acids continue to be made as long as there is availability of resources until a stop codon is hit which is what stops the translation. Different types of amino acids are made for different things; therefore, naturally, these types of amino acids must be made through the process of translation. Through the use of a simple chart of genetic code triplets, it is possible to find out which coding sequences of mRNA correspond to which amino acids; therefore, it is easy to see the outcome of translation without actually diving into genes. Sixty four total codons exist that correspond to polypetides and

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