Messenger RNA

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  • Extreme Environment Analysis

    It is well known that all organisms require at least some water to survive, even the most hardy creature on the planet earth, the tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, which can survive near complete dehydration, exposure to extreme radiation, vacuum, temperature and pressure, must be rejuvenated with water if it is to resume life after near complete desiccation (Gabriel, et al. 2007). H. dujardini, famous for surviving some of the harshest conditions of any organism we know of, is a perfect example of what we consider an extreme environment, that is, any environment considered to be extreme is one in which water cannot be easily accessed, for example in both extreme hot and extreme cold, water is difficult to access, either because it has vaporized, or because it is trapped in its solid form. Another form of a water starved environment is environments with high salinity, such as the environments where you would find Haloarcula marismortui, an extreme halophilic archaea from the Dead Sea. Har. marismortui is one of many halophilic archaea that are found to grow optimally in concentrations of NaCl that meet or exceed 2.5M concentration (Madern, et al. 1999), and it must maintain osmotic homeostasis with the environment if it is to preserve enough water to live. In order to survive, Har. marismortui counteracts the external ionic concentrations of the sodium cations with internal potassium ions. Pumping ions against such a high concentration gradient is vitally important for the…

    Words: 1362 - Pages: 6
  • Chop1

    Figure 5: Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of CHOP splicing variants in plasmids and liver tissues, and CHOP exon arrangements. (A) CHOP1 mRNA contains four exons, whereas CHOP2 mRNA lacks the second exon of CHOP1. The 5 '-leader of CHOP is encoded within the first and second exons, while the coding sequence is encoded within the third and fourth exons of CHOP. (B) As expected, CHOP1 primers amplified CHOP1 transcripts at the size of 214 bp in the CHOP1 plasmid template containing the full…

    Words: 1181 - Pages: 5
  • Pros And Cons Of Gene Control

    determine "how much" transcription is necessary. Positive control is the method that can help start the transcription through protein binding and is often regulated by things such as glucose. On the other hand, negative control can help stop transcription when necessary. This type of control also involves the binding of a protein, but it is a repressing protein as opposed to an activator. Although transcription is different in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, there are many similarities. In…

    Words: 982 - Pages: 4
  • Dna Makes Protein Research Paper

    DNA makes proteins. DNA is stored in the nucleus and contains phosphates (a phosphate includes nitrogen bases). DNA is made up of these phosphates, but, in making polypeptides, or a protein, the nitrogen bases are the most important in his process. To make a polypeptide, the helicase unzips the double helix figure, making two rows, or strands, which are one side of all of the nitrogen bases. Floating nitrogen bases string the opposite of these sides, to make an original copy, but leave, ending…

    Words: 400 - Pages: 2
  • Fto Synthesis

    FTO belongs to a member of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent AlkB dioxygenase family and was originally recognized as an enzyme involved in the excision of N1- or N3-modified purine or primidine in both DNA and RNA substrates. Jia et al. for the first time demonstrated that human FTO could also demethylate m6A on nuclear RNAs in vitro, and increase and decrease in m6A was manifested in FTO-depleted and overexpressed-HeLa cell, respectively. FTO function has shown to link to the regulation of…

    Words: 990 - Pages: 4
  • Protein Synthesis Research Paper

    Transfer RNA Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a crucial component in Protein Synthesis. It serves as an adaptor molecule between the codon, the three nucleic acids and the amino acid after which a specific protein will be synthesized. It is the intermediate in Protein Synthesis which interprets the genetic code. Without tRNA, translation in prokaryotes or eukaryotes could not take place. Common Features of tRNA Molecule Each amino acid has at least one tRNA molecule. Therefore, these tRNA molecules have…

    Words: 851 - Pages: 4
  • Why Scientists Study Human Genetic Research

    In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA. Understanding Human Genetic Variation Genetics is the scientific study of inherited variation. Human genetics, then, is the scientific study of inherited human variation. We study genetic material due to following reasons; 1. One reason is simply an interest in better understanding…

    Words: 1075 - Pages: 5
  • Prokaryote Dna Synthesis Lab Report

    Prokaryote DNA replication is a semi conservative, bidirectional, template driven process. The phrase ‘semi-conservative’ refers to the fact that the newly synthesised double stranded DNA is made up of one parental (existing) strand, and one newly synthesised strand. The parental duplex is not ‘conserved’ as an entity. This was proved by the Meselson-Stahl experiment by replicating E.Coli in different mediums of of different Nitrogen isotopes. The results consisted of half of normal weight and…

    Words: 400 - Pages: 2
  • Difference Between Prokaryotes And Eukaryotes In Protein Synthesis

    Transcription is a process which information from DNA is converted into its RNA equivalent which also refers to the synthesis of RNA copy of information encoded on DNA. The same principles of transcriptional regulation apply to both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Transcription involves in access of transcription apparatus to DNA, recognition of promoter sequences, initiation of RNA synthesis, elongation of RNA, and termination. Transcriptional in eukaryotes is more complex compared to prokaryotes…

    Words: 1963 - Pages: 8
  • The Central Dogma

    Introduction Information processing is crucial in all fields of science. In molecular biology, the central dogma, first devised by Francis Crick, is a classical backbone of living cells to essentially perform the processes from cell division to death through the DNA, RNA, and protein information ways. More specifically, the central dogma defines the transfer of sequence information during DNA replication, transcription into RNA, and translation into amino-acid chains forming proteins. It also…

    Words: 1763 - Pages: 8
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