There are two types of organisms based cell types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are divided into two parts: Bacteria and Archaea. Prokaryotes are much smaller than eukaryotes. Prokaryotes contain a single loop of chromosomal DNA which is stored in nucleoid. Eukaryotes DNA is found on tightly bound and organised chromosomes.
Genetic expression is the process where genotypes coded in the genes are displayed by the phenotypes of the individuals. The DNA is then copied by the RNA and synthesized into protein. The process of transcription, which is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is where the instruction of the gene expression is most likely to occur. Prokaryote allows a continual synthesis of protein to occur. On the other hand, in …show more content…
Histones are small proteins packed inside the molecular structure of the DNA double helix. Tight histone packing stops RNA polymerase from contacting and transcribing the DNA. This type of over control of protein synthesis is regulated by genes that control the packing density of histones.
Activator-enhancer complex is unique in eukaryotes because they normally have to be activated to begin protein synthesis, which requires the use of transcription factors and RNA polymerase. Usually, the process of eukaryotic protein synthesis involves four steps:
1. Activators, a special type of transcription factor, bind to enhancers, which are discrete DNA units located at vary points along the chromosomes/
2. The activator-enhancer complex bends the DNA molecules so that the additional transcription factors could have a better access to the bonding sites on the operator.
3. The bonding of additional transcription factor to the operator allows a greater access by the RNA polymerase which then begins the process of