Metabotropic glutamate receptor

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    hippocampus is involved in the acquisition of the latent memory, and iii) the infant hippocampus matures through experience using mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including expression switch of NMDA receptor subunits from 2B to 2A. The NMDA receptor subunit switch is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that blocking either BDNF or mGluR5 blocked the learning-induced switch of 2B to 2A. Conversely, activating the BDNF pathway at training induced the switch and promoted long-term memory formation, hence rescuing the infantile amnesia11. This study is groundbreaking, since these are the first mechanisms identified for memory formation in the infant hippocampus. Furthermore, it is also very intriguing that the identified mechanisms are typical of developmental critical periods12-21. Critical periods are temporal windows of development during which various neural circuits are shaped by experience12, 19. Critical periods have been discovered and studied in sensory systems and in learning experiences, including language in humans and song learning in birds22-26. The biological mechanisms of critical periods have been mainly studied in the visual system12-21. For example, the NMDA receptor subunits switch from 2B to 2A has been discovered and characterized in the visual cortex during its developmental critical period14-17. Our data propose a new view of infant learning and infantile…

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    Sodium Glutamate

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    Monosodium glutamate is a taste enhancing vegetable protein. At the time of discovery, MSG was thought to be safe since it was an amino acid, a natural substance. The amount of MSG added to foods has doubled in every decade since the 1940's and by 1972, 262,000 metric tons of MSG were produced. In 1957 two ophthalmologists, Lucas and Newhouse decided to test MSG on infant mice in an effort to study the effects of MSG and its correlation with an eye disease known as hereditary retinal dystrophy.…

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    Sa2 Case Study

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    potential difficulties. The results of the experiments proposed in SA2 are expected to determine if POMC and AgRP neurons form synapses with MC3R VTA neurons, determine the identity of MC3R-expressing VTA neurons, and to map afferent and efferent projections of VTA MC3R neurons. GABA neurons are the second most numerous neuronal population in the VTA. Therefore, it is expected that a large proportion of TH negative MC3R-expressing VTA neurons will colocalize with GAD67. Observations to the…

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    Have you ever been sitting in line for a fast food restaurant and wondered what the long term effects the food we are about the purchase could be making on our bodies? Fast food has many different additives that are coloring our foods and preservatives such as sodium nitrate, MSG (monosodium glutamate), and even feathers and hair that are commonly labeled as L-cysteine and more that are in many different foods that most individuals consume on a daily basis. Fast food may be good, but it has…

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    In spite of ingestion of these additional commercially produced glutamates, our body metabolizes this glutamate in the same way it does with the other glutamates found naturally in foods. What that means is that our body does not distinguish between naturally occurring glutamates or the MSG found in a bottle of ketchup. Interestingly, a research report not suggests that glutamate from food or MSG is important for a normal digestive function. (Food Insight, 2009) In 1958 the FDA (U.S. Food and…

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    post-myocardial infarction (post-MI). COPD is a progressive respiratory condition characterized by the inadequate airflow which makes the breathing more difficult. COPD patients are commonly treated with the bronchodilators such as the beta-2 adrenergic agonists.1 The beta-2 agonists stimulate the beta-2 adrenergic receptors which are found primarily in the lungs and peripheral vasculature. The stimulation of these receptors elicits airway dilation and aids the breathing process. Hypertension…

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    Essay On Grass Tetany

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    most common ion within cattle and it plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal firing. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and excitation-contraction coupling with a skeletal muscle (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). A mammal experiencing homeostasis will have magnesium bound within the channel of the NMDA receptor, thereby preventing the potentiation of an action potential through the…

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    Intrinsic Cardiac Activity: The first peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the atrial contraction of the heart. The second peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the ventricular contraction of the heart. The third peak observed corresponded to the relaxation of the heart. Frank-Starling Mechanism: There was no significant trend observed in ventricular contractile force in response to increasing imposed length of the heart (Fig 1a). A maximum ventricular contractile…

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    Cannabinoid Analysis

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    As of now, two cannabinoids (marijuana), dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet), are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).1 According to an article about the use of cannabinoids and the treatment of chemotherapy side effects, cannabinoids are shown to have a significant neuro-modulatory function in decreasing CINV.1 CB1 cannabinoid receptors are present in the central nervous system, while recent evidence proposes that…

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    Adenosine receptor blockage’s effects on the electrophysiology of HCTP/OR producing neurons of the Hypothalamus – receptor blockage mediated by Caffeine Introduction In this experiment, the quantification of firing rate changes on a specific neural sub-group will be analyzed via whole cell patch-clamping and the application of the common psychoactive drug-caffeine. The significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen…

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