Adrenergic receptor

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    Beneficial effects of the beta adrenergic antagonists in the treatment of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is not uncommon for the patients to present with two or more disease states at the same time. Thus, the management of such concomitant disease states may be pharmacologically challenging as it is, for example, in the treatment of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypertension (HTN) with a compelling indication of the post-myocardial infarction (post-MI). COPD is a progressive respiratory condition characterized by the inadequate airflow which makes the breathing more difficult. COPD patients are commonly treated with the bronchodilators such as the beta-2 adrenergic agonists.1 The beta-2 agonists stimulate…

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    These receptors are found in the cardiac muscle and their stimulation has a positive inotropic effect (increases the contractility of the heart). It does so without significantly increasing heart rate or affecting peripheral vascular resistance (as it does not activate alpha adrenergic receptors of blood vessels). The result is increased cardiac output via increased stroke volume (Tariq & Aronow, 2015). In the case of Mrs Kelly the cardiac muscles are stunned by ischemia and have decreased…

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    Intrinsic Cardiac Activity: The first peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the atrial contraction of the heart. The second peak of the electrocardiogram graph corresponded to the ventricular contraction of the heart. The third peak observed corresponded to the relaxation of the heart. Frank-Starling Mechanism: There was no significant trend observed in ventricular contractile force in response to increasing imposed length of the heart (Fig 1a). A maximum ventricular contractile…

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    The Role of Alpha-1 Adrenergic Receptor in Disease Adrenergic receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are activated by catecholamines in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (1-AR) are systematic vasoconstrictors: their activation constricts blood vessels by the contraction of vascular smooth muscle. These transmembrane receptors are activated by the binding of epinephrine or norepinephrine, which creates intracellular signals via…

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    Albuterol Research Paper

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    Albuterol is an adrenergic receptor agonist with pharmacological properties and therapeutic indications similar to terbutaline. The mechanism of the anti-asthmatic action of adrenergic receptor agonists is without a doubt linked to the direct relaxation of airway smooth muscle and the bronchodilator. Although human bronchial smooth muscle receives little or no sympathetic stoppage, it contains large numbers of adrenergic receptors. When the adrenergic receptors activate the adenylyl cyclase…

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    Essay On Grass Tetany

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    most common ion within cattle and it plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal firing. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and excitation-contraction coupling with a skeletal muscle (Aydin and Uzun, 2008). A mammal experiencing homeostasis will have magnesium bound within the channel of the NMDA receptor, thereby preventing the potentiation of an action potential through the…

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    Cannabinoid Analysis

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    As of now, two cannabinoids (marijuana), dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet), are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).1 According to an article about the use of cannabinoids and the treatment of chemotherapy side effects, cannabinoids are shown to have a significant neuro-modulatory function in decreasing CINV.1 CB1 cannabinoid receptors are present in the central nervous system, while recent evidence proposes that…

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    Adenosine receptor blockage’s effects on the electrophysiology of HCTP/OR producing neurons of the Hypothalamus – receptor blockage mediated by Caffeine Introduction In this experiment, the quantification of firing rate changes on a specific neural sub-group will be analyzed via whole cell patch-clamping and the application of the common psychoactive drug-caffeine. The significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen…

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    that can lead to one having a DSD, including but not limited to, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and conditions resulting in genital ambiguity (having the existence of both male and female reproductive organs or it being unclear.) Also, there have been found to be many different chromosomal combinations present within the population including XX, XO (Turner Syndrome), XY, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), and XYY. (Aulette, Wittner, 2015) (Fausto-Sterling,…

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    Teratoma Essay

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    deteriorated into destructive neurological damage. Suspecting that the teratomas played a critical role in this unfolding medical discovery, doctors removed the teratomas and administered immune-suppressing medication, resulting in the rapid recovery of three out of the four women (Braverman 3). However, they still had to discover the source of the problem. In Dalmau’s lab, researchers exposed rat brains to the patients’ spinal fluid. Bingo. The brains showed evidence of an attack by antibodies,…

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