Acetylcholine

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    Acetylcholine has two types of receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic, these receptors are functionally and structurally different. Nicotinic receptors are ionotropic, meaning that ions flow through it when acetylcholine binds to it. It acts as a channel for the ions that cross it, especially sodium, and this causes the depolarization of the cell. There are two types of nicotinic receptors formed by different subunits, N1 are found in the neuromuscular junctions allowing muscle movement, and N2 is found in the brain. Muscarinic receptors, however, use G-protein coupled, when acetylcholine binds to the receptor, the protein changes its shape so that it allows phosphorylating second messengers. There are five types of muscarinic receptors, M1, M2…

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    Acetylcholine Research Forums The following members Li Jiang, Lorna Role, and David Talmage were able to develop a method towards controlling mice memories, by manipulating the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. 1.) Purpose: As of this article Science Daily, “previous research has suggested that cholinergic input to the amygdala appears to strengthen emotional memories.” Memory that could be tuned, providing dreadful memories or dementia can be erased furthermore gone from the human’s…

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    Myasthenia gravis What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is a medical condition characterized by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness. Patients often have involvement of their ocular (eye) and bulbar muscles. The bulbar muscles are located in the head and are important for chewing and swallowing. Symptoms often include double vision, eyelid drooping, slurred speech, and dysphagia (trouble swallowing) due to muscle…

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    Myasthenia Gravis is considered an “autoimmune neuromuscular disease” that is categorized by the different amounts of weakness of the skeletal muscles in the body. The cause of Myasthenia Gravis is a flaw in the transmission of the nerve impulses to the muscles in the body. When normal communication between nerves and muscles are distributed at the neuromuscular junction, Myasthenia Gravis occurs. In normal humans, when an impulse travels down a nerve, the nerve then releases a neurotransmitter…

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    Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter discovered. It is the neurotransmitter associated with learning, thought, arousal, and activation of muscles. Acetylcholine enables movement by sending messages from motor neurons to muscles. This neurotransmitter is also linked with memory. Those with low acetylcholine can have Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with problems in memory, language, and thinking. For example, those with Alzheimer’s will slowly forget people’s names…

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    Guinea Pig Ilem Lab Report

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    properties of lignocaine, it prevents the depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron, and averts the initiation of an action potential (Sheu and Lederer, 1985). The effects of lignocaine on the intestinal smooth muscle are described to be concentration-dependent contractures (F A., 1986). Thus, in the experiment, as the amplitude of contraction was diminished, it demonstrated an anesthetic function of lignocaine on nociceptors (van den Broek et al., 2011). Another drug that was applied to the…

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    Competitive Interceptors

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    To understand the effects of agonists and competitive antagonists the receptors involved must be identified first. There are 2 major groups of receptors present in rat ileum, the first being 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and the second, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) – and of these two groups there are certain subtypes in the ileum contributing to its tone, motility, secretion and blood flow. The 5-HT receptor subtypes most prevalent in the rat ileum were, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B,…

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    Skeletal Muscle System

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    which have at least one neuromuscular junction. A neuromuscular junction is the area of the skeletal muscle fiber that is innervated by a motor neuron (motor nerve). It plays a key role in body movement and breathing along with our nervous system. The synaptic knob, motor end plate, and the synaptic cleft are all key parts of the neuromuscular junction. The synaptic knob of an axon connects with a skeletal muscle fiber to form the neuromuscular junction. The synaptic knob has numerous synaptic…

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    One of the drugs used to help improve muscle contraction and increase muscle contraction are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This allows acetylcholine to be bound to the few available receptors for longer amount time. In general, this approach is mostly beneficial for patients who have a milder form oft the disease. Furthermore, inhibitors like pyridostigmine may cause bradycardia, particularly in elderly patients. Doses in high amounts also cause increased muscle cramps, sweating, and…

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    significantly longer than both of the contraction durations after the room temperature and hot treatments. The contraction duration after the room temperature treatment was significantly longer than the contraction duration after the hot treatment (Fig 5B). Our results mean that as body temperature increases in organisms, contraction force of skeletal muscle decrease. In contrast, as body temperature decreases in organisms, contraction force decrease in skeletal. Our finding were consistent with…

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