Acetylcholine

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  • Acetylcholine Research Paper

    Acetylcholine has two types of receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic, these receptors are functionally and structurally different. Nicotinic receptors are ionotropic, meaning that ions flow through it when acetylcholine binds to it. It acts as a channel for the ions that cross it, especially sodium, and this causes the depolarization of the cell. There are two types of nicotinic receptors formed by different subunits, N1 are found in the neuromuscular junctions allowing muscle movement, and N2 is found in the brain. Muscarinic receptors, however, use G-protein coupled, when acetylcholine binds to the receptor, the protein changes its shape so that it allows phosphorylating second messengers. There are five types of muscarinic receptors, M1, M2…

    Words: 498 - Pages: 2
  • Annotated Bibliography Acetylcholine

    Acetylcholine Research Forums The following members Li Jiang, Lorna Role, and David Talmage were able to develop a method towards controlling mice memories, by manipulating the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. 1.) Purpose: As of this article Science Daily, “previous research has suggested that cholinergic input to the amygdala appears to strengthen emotional memories.” Memory that could be tuned, providing dreadful memories or dementia can be erased furthermore gone from the human’s…

    Words: 546 - Pages: 3
  • Myasthenia Gravis Research Paper

    Myasthenia gravis What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis is a medical condition characterized by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness. Patients often have involvement of their ocular (eye) and bulbar muscles. The bulbar muscles are located in the head and are important for chewing and swallowing. Symptoms often include double vision, eyelid drooping, slurred speech, and dysphagia (trouble swallowing) due to muscle…

    Words: 1090 - Pages: 5
  • Intrinsic Heart Experiment

    2b). A minimum heart rate of 33.7 + 0.577 beats/min (N=3) was observed with no additions. After the addition of ephinephrine, a significant increase in heart rate from 33.7 + 0.577 beats/min (N=3) to 37.7 + 0.577 beats/min (N=3) was observed. After the addition of eserine, no significant difference in heart rate was observed relative to the baseline value. Following the addition of atropine, a significant increase in heart rate from 33.7 + 0.577 beats/min (N=3) to 37.7 + 0.577 beats/min (N=3)…

    Words: 766 - Pages: 4
  • Skeletal Muscle System

    which have at least one neuromuscular junction. A neuromuscular junction is the area of the skeletal muscle fiber that is innervated by a motor neuron (motor nerve). It plays a key role in body movement and breathing along with our nervous system. The synaptic knob, motor end plate, and the synaptic cleft are all key parts of the neuromuscular junction. The synaptic knob of an axon connects with a skeletal muscle fiber to form the neuromuscular junction. The synaptic knob has numerous synaptic…

    Words: 413 - Pages: 2
  • Twitch Recruitment Experiment

    significantly longer than both of the contraction durations after the room temperature and hot treatments. The contraction duration after the room temperature treatment was significantly longer than the contraction duration after the hot treatment (Fig 5B). Our results mean that as body temperature increases in organisms, contraction force of skeletal muscle decrease. In contrast, as body temperature decreases in organisms, contraction force decrease in skeletal. Our finding were consistent with…

    Words: 793 - Pages: 4
  • Huperzine-A Research Paper

    medicines, brain supplements, neural boosters, nutraceuticals, etc. Generally, a nootropic is any element that improves brain functionality around the subject of focus, reminiscence, and cerebral agility. Listed below is selection of some of the worlds' best nootropics: 1. Huperzine-A: "Huperzine-A" is effective as the cholinesterase inhibitor, which basically inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, being the primary neurotransmitter inside the brain, works for flow…

    Words: 460 - Pages: 2
  • Alzheimer's Disease Case Study

    drug marketed as both a reversible and competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (Lilienfeld, 2006). Production Galantamine is a tertiary alkaloid first isolated from the plant snowdrop, Galanthus woronow, (Figure 2) in the 1950’s. Today this alkaloid is produced from Narcissus spp., Leucojum spp., other bulbous species of the Amaryllidaceae family, and also synthetically (Marco-Contelles, Carreiras, Rodríguez, Villarroya, & García, 2006). All of these plants are effective at imitating…

    Words: 1766 - Pages: 8
  • Myasthenia Gravis Essay

    It is estimated that up to 80% of acetylcholine receptors may be destroyed by this disease. It is believed that the thymus gland causes the body to develop immune cells, and causes the production or maintains the production of antibodies that block the acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, causing the immune system to attack its own cells, tissues and specifically the acetylcholine receptors, making Myasthenia Gravis an autoimmune disorder. Myasthenia Gravis is most common in women under the age…

    Words: 369 - Pages: 2
  • Predatory Conus Hormones

    Their targets are ion channels and receptors in the neuromuscular system. The venom of Conus geographus contains high-affinity peptides that act on voltage-sensitive calcium channels, sodium Channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and vasopressin receptors; many more peptides with still uncharacterized receptor targets are present in this venom. It now seems that the Conus species (approximately 500 in number) will each use a distinctive assortment of peptides…

    Words: 800 - Pages: 4
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