Adenosine Receptor Caffeine Analysis

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Analysis of Adenosine receptor blockage’s effects on the electrophysiology of HCTP/OR producing neurons of the Hypothalamus – receptor blockage mediated by Caffeine

Introduction
In this experiment, the quantification of firing rate changes on a specific neural sub-group will be analyzed via whole cell patch-clamping and the application of the common psychoactive drug-caffeine. The significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen drug-caffeine has on the neurotransmitter Adenosine. Caffeine is a known antagonist of Adenosine, inquiring that it counters Adenosine’s inhibitory effects by a simple mechanism of competitive inhibition – not allowing Adenosine to bind
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In the presence of caffeine however, caffeine can take the place of Adenosine and binds to the receptor without activating it; Thus acting as a competitive inhibitor. As a result, caffeine temporarily relieves or prevents drowsiness, and thus restores alertness. Another, more underlining cause for the effects of the drug comes from the release of Acetylcholine, which is promoted by all Adenosine receptor antagonists – this is due to ACh (Acetylcholine) being an excitatory neurotransmitter, one that is reduced in the presence of Adenosine, thus why Adenosine has the drowsiness effect (Bear, …show more content…
For this experiment, receptor types A1 and A2A (the ones present in the brain) will be targeted for drug application (caffeine). One location of both these receptors can be located in the Lateral Hypothalamus on Hypocretin/Orexin neurons. These neurons are believed to be highly involved with sleep itself. They are controlled by both the presence and absence of Adenosine, due to their A1 receptor. As stated before, Adenosine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, thus its presence will lower the activity of these neurons (Siegel, 2004). The location on a lateral sliced mouse brain is shown in Image (3).
Mouse Brain Model
Neuroscience has used the mouse brain model in electrophysiological experiments for decades, for its reliable relation to the human neuro system (Eliasmith, 2003). Using the Mouse model allows for proper in vivo experimentation, whilst holding most truths for the human body: all to further the study of the Brain (Bear, 2007).

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