2.0 Literature Review
This literature review section will describe the fundamental or important topic of this study.
2.1 Hard capsule
Capsule, tablet, syrup is among the type of oral administration drug delivery carrier. The capsule is a solid dosage form of drug delivery, which derived from degradable polymer film. The capsules can be divided into hard and soft capsule types. The capsules can be segmented by source of raw materials, and end users. The segmentation by source of raw materials can be divided to pigskin gelatin, bone-derived gelatin, bovine-hide gelatin, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), pullulan, starch materials, and others. While segmentation by end users are includes the pharmaceutical industry, nutraceutical industry, cosmetics industry, and research laboratories (Markets and Markets, 2014). The major industrial players in the empty capsules market include ACG Worldwide (India), Capsugel (U.S.), CapsCanada Corporation (Canada), Qualicaps, Inc. (U.S.), Suheung Co., Ltd. (Korea), Medi-Caps Ltd. (India), Roxlor LLC (U.S.), Sunil Healthcare Ltd. (India), Snail Pharma Industry Co., Ltd. (China), and Bright Pharma Caps, Inc. (U.S.). While in Malaysia, the Nashmir Capsule Sdn Bhd, one of the company that manufacture halal hard capsule using the imported bovine gelatin.
At the early stage of the development, the hard capsule is known as two pieces shell capsule that normally for solid form of fillings. Nowadays, the hard capsule is regarded as solid…