Antigen

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    The immune system is a host defense mechanism that involves a complex collection of molecules, cells, and tissue. The primary function of the immune system is responsible for recognizing and differentiating between harmful and none harmful microbes in the human body. When a human is resistant to a certain disease, that human is known to be immune. The term used to describe an immune individual is referred to as immunity. The primary function of immunity is to become resistant to certain infectious diseases. There are two major immune systems that distinguishes foreign substances. Humoral immunity is a group that consists of antigens that freely circulating in the body. Antigens are foreign substances that include viruses. Humoral immunity involves B cells that recognize antigens or pathogens. Antigens can also stimulate the production of antibodies. Antibodies have the capability of recognizing and destroying pathogens. However, antibodies are rarely ever involved in cell-medicated immunity. Cell-medicated immunity involve T cells and responds to viruses, tumor cells, or transplanted cells. There are also two types of immunities: active and passive acquired immunity. Active acquired immunity is antibodies being produced…

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    Consequences of Antigen-antibody Binding:- Interaction of antigen and antibody is a bimolecular association and it never lead to an irreversible chemical modification in either the antibody or antigen. The association between antigen and antibody includes various non-covalent interactions between the antigenic determining factor (epitope) of the antigen and the…

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    PSA Synthesis Essay

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    In life, we will sooner or later be thrown a curveball. Some of us will miss by a mile, some of us will miss just barely, and some of us will get a hit. There is one commonality: unexpected circumstances remind us to expect the unexpected out of life. Typically, a rising PSA is the first sign, coming well before any clinical signs or symptoms. In my mind, however, undergoing a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) check was about as bad as anything I could imagine. That PSA anxiety hammers away at…

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    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death amongst men in the United States. One in six men is estimated to be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their lives. Similar trends are found worldwide to mirror those of the United States. However, the progression of prostate cancer is typically slow and does not metastasize all that often. Due to this, treatments can typically be life saving and prostate cancer deaths have declined ~35% from 1997 to 2007. This can…

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    who believe they may have diabetes an oral glucose tolerance test that provides a map to help find any abnormalities (Warning signs of type 1 diabetes). The genes involved with type 1 diabetes are located on two chromosome regions: one is the MHCHLA on chromosome 6p21 also known as IDDM1, and on the insulin gene region on chromosome 11p5 known as IDDM2 (Davies et al. 1994) (Dean, McEntyre 2004). These genes that are associated with type 1 diabetes are genetically heterogenous, but different…

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    Oral Tolerance Essay

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    Oral tolerance is the property of certain antigens which, when ingested via the oral route suppresses the immune system and induces tolerance. This property can be used to explain how peptides and other molecules from the food we eat are easily digested and absorbed without eliciting an immune response. This property has been exploited by scientists wherein particular amounts of antigens when administered through the oral route lead to its tolerance by the immune system and thus help in…

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    Explain the antigen-antibody response as it relates to blood groups. Antigens are known to be surface proteins located on all cells as well as blood cells. A person’s blood type can determine the presences or absences of certain antigens. An antigen-antibody response can be initiated only if a person receiving a blood transfusion containing antigens and detects it as being foreign. Antibodies located in an individual’s blood then binds to the foreign antigen leading to agglutination…

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    the most probable antibody present in the patient’s sample. Reagent screening cells 2 and 3 were not reactive at immediate spin, 37°C, or in the AHG phase. The screen ruled out antibodies to D, c, E, e, k, Kpb, Jsb, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, Lea, Leb, P1, M, N, S, s, Lub, and Xg*a antigens. In all positive screening cells, reactions occurred at immediate spin, 37°C, and AHG phases; however, screening cells with positive reactions did not react with same strength. The panel ruled out antigens V*, Cw, K,…

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    T Body System

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    getting sick and helps to prevent diseases. Some people have a stronger immune system than others, and that means that they have either more white blood cells or lots of good bacteria, or both. This has been a very interesting subject for me, and I had a lot of fun researching it. Body System Most Affected The body system that is most affected by T cells is the Immune System because their job is to recognize and destroy antigens. Antigens are different kinds of protists, bacteria, and viruses…

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    Introduction The purpose of this ABO-Rh Blood Typing Experiment is to identify the individual blood types and observe the reactions between antigens and antibodies. Blood is typed by the presence or absence of a specific antigen/s in the plasma membrane of a red blood cell. Depending upon the antigen/antibody reaction, we will be able to identify the unknown blood types in each of the samples. Blood typing is extremely significant in the world we live in today. If you ever intend on donating…

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