Antibodies And B Cells Similarities

Good Essays
Lymphocytes are found in the blood stream and at sites of infections but are found in two different forms that have many similarities and differences. They are both a type of white blood cell and are formed from stem cells (Toole and Toole 2008) but then mature into different cells known as T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells). T cells mature in the thymus with cell surface molecules TCR and CD3 and release lymphokines, whereas, B cells mature in the bone marrow with cell surface molecules of antibodies and BCR. This is one way of distinguishing between the two types of cell (Eales, 1999). Even though they both specifically recognise foreign molecules such as microorganisms and destroy them, also known as a specific immune response, …show more content…
Antibodies are Y-shaped protein molecules, also known as immunoglobulin, which are produced by B lymphocytes. They’re specifically made to identify and neutralize foreign molecules such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. Antibodies are passed from the mother to the foetus during pregnancy, this is known as passive immunity, but then further develop when the infant is born. It is most common that antibodies are created in response to a certain antigen, however, the immune system does produce natural antibodies that aren’t in response to immunisation or vaccination but to carbohydrates on the surface of bacteria which is the beginning of an immune response. Antibodies respond to a pathogen in three main ways. Firstly, they may bind directly to the pathogen which prevents the pathogens from entering or causing damage to other cells. Antibodies can also stimulate other cells in the immune system to destroy the pathogen. Opsonisation can also be used to mark the pathogens. Phagocytes and the pathogens both have a negative charge so naturally repel one another. The antibody binds to the pathogen and neutralises the charge on the pathogen so that the phagocyte won’t be repelled and therefore it is easier for the phagocyte to engulf the pathogen to then neutralise it with enzymes (Holdener et al, 1999). The antigens on the surface of the pathogen are taken up by B cells which then present the antigens on their cell surface. T helper cells attach to the antigen and activate other B cells to divide also by mitosis, the same as the T cells, however, B cells divide into different types of cells. Eales (1999) suggested that during mitosis of B cells, the sequence of amino acids in the daughter cells may not be exactly the same as the parent cell, but this does not alter which antigen the antibody recognises. The overall affinity of the antibodies generally increases over time as the B cell numbers increase

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Infliximab Case Study

    • 733 Words
    • 3 Pages

    CASE STUDY3: INFLIXIMAB & ITS BIOSIMILAR Infliximab is a chimeric, anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody which is effective in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Infliximab is traded under the name “remicade” and is originally licensed by Janssen. It works by binding to TNF-α and inhibits the binding of TNF-α with its receptor. TNF-α is a cytokine (chemical messenger) that is involved in systemic inflammation. CT-P13 (brand name- inflectra) is a biosimilar of infliximab approved…

    • 733 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Good Essays

    Tzartos, S. J., Efthimiadis, A., Morel, E., Eymard, B., & Bach, J. (1990), fine antigenic specificities of anti-AChR antibodies in sera from 21 MG mothers and 17 of their infants were studied (nine of which had transiently transferred the disease). Although in a few cases significant differences in antibody specificities were observed between mothers and infants, whether myasthenic or not, generally the antigenic specificities of the antibodies in sera from infants were very similar to those of their…

    • 747 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Amazing Essays

    These antoantibodies develop sequentially with IAA antibodies often presenting first. High affinity antibodies in patients are reactive to resides the N-terminal region (residues 8-13) of proinsulin21. Despite autoantibodies against GAD65 often developing after IAA antibodies, GAD65 antibodies are still detectable several years before metabolic diagnosis of T1D22,23. While IAA is specific to T1D, GAD65 antibodies may be a more general marker of autoimmunity19. The detection of autoantibodies…

    • 1389 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Amazing Essays