T helper cell

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    Briefly describe the life cycle of the HIV virus. The HIV virus enters the cell and is able to replicate by: binding and fusing to T-cells receptors, using the enzyme reverse transcriptase to change the genetic material so it is able to enter the DNA of the host, integrating by entering the nucleus of the T-cells and using the integrates enzyme to integrate itself into the genetic material, transcribing to create more genetic material and longer proteins, assembling by using protease enzymes to cut HIV proteins so they are able to come together with the virus’ genetic material and assemble the new virus, and finally by budding the virus pushes itself out of the cell with part of the membrane so it is able to bind to additional T-cells and duplicate the process (AIDS.gov, 2009). HIV sometimes starts with an acute infection called acute retroviral syndrome (2-4 weeks after the individuals is infected) in which the infected individuals may feel flu like symptoms and large amounts of HIV starts being produced within the body. The virus then uses T-cells, which are vital immune system cells, to make copies of itself and destroy cells; T-cell count falls drastically. During the latent period of HIV, T-cell counts slowly drop at first and then eventually start dropping more drastically again, making the person less able to fight off diseases and infections; HIV eventually turns into AIDS (i.e. T-cell count below 200 cells per cubic millimeter) in which the infection has spread and…

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    Having Hiv/Aids Hardship

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    This causes them to be tired and have a lack of energy (Lederal, Gay, Aouizerat, Portillo, Lee). These symptoms could interfere with their daily activities and self care. There fatigue does not go away with a good rest of sleep. It is a constant battle of exhaustion for them. Some researchers found that people who have a lower CD4 and T-cell count are at a higher increase for fatigue (Lederal, Gay, Aouizerat, Portillo, Lee). Because these people have chronic fatigue, they could have disturbed…

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    The proteome of M. paratuberculosis strain JTC303 CF was different from that of the CE. Specifically, CF proteins generally had lower pIs (4.4 to 5.5) and smaller masses (most s immune system loses control of the pathogen, or the pathogen begins active replication, the organism disseminates, and the host response shifts to a Th2 type immune reaction. The hallmark of this infection stage is production of detectable serum antibodies. A positive relationship has been shown between the level of…

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    haplotypes DQ2 and DQ8, and is present on autosomal chromosome 6. Celiac disease is induced by the consumption of foods that contain the protein gluten, which affects the auto-antigen tissue transglutaminase. Gluten, a 33 amino acid peptide high in glutamine and proline, resists digestion in celiac disease patients. The undigested proteins penetrate the epithelial barrier and are modified by tissue transglutaminase which deamidates glutamine into glutamic acid. This results in epitopes…

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    Goodpasture Syndrome

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    Goodpasture syndrome is classified as an autoimmune disease due to B and T-cell mediated responses that result in the patient’s body to development antibodies against its own normal tissue, specifically the basement membranes of the glomerulus (glomerular basement membranes) and of the lungs (alveolar basement membranes) More specifically, the antibodies are developed against the noncollagenous domain 1 of the alpha 3-chain of type IV collagen). The noncollagenous domain 1 alpha 3 chain of type…

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    T Cells Essay

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    The T cells are a type of white cells, which are important to the immune system, and contain a system that adjusts the body’s reaction to specific pathogens, this being the center of its adaptive immunity. T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders. T cells can be compared to soilders, they search out and demolish intruders. There has been a literature attention on the function of the administration in cancer immunity in T-Cells. The T cells are now known to take…

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    The etiology and pathogenesis of RA are complex and multifaceted. A range of predetermined (genes) and stochastic (random events and environment) factors contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis.(kelly). The initiation of RA probably begins years before the onset of clinical symptoms. This process involves certain specific genes that can help break tolerance and lead to autoreactivity. It is likely that the earliest phases are marked by repeated activation of innate immunity Cigarette…

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    patient (Fisher, 2014). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the psychologist will be able to point out actions to the patients and family to examine what behaviors are having a negative and positive effect. Once examined, the information gathered could be used to make an effective change. (Rich, 2015). Hashimoto’s has a very limited research history. There is no cure. There is only a limitation of symptoms (Bishay, 2016). An old method of research was into B lymphocytes and it examined the…

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    Interleukin 4 Lab Report

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    to a mouse protein called B-cell stimulatory component 1 (BCSF-1). Cytogenetic Location: 5q31.1 Molecular Location on chromosome 5: base pairs 132,673,986 to 132,682,678 (Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) The IL4 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 5 at position 31.1. IL-4 has been known as the "prototypic immunoregulatory cytokine." Takes an interest in no less than a few B-cell enactment forms and of other cell sorts. It is a…

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    that Treg cells produce forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) at some point of their development. This protein is an important molecule in immune regulation as its presence in cells was determined to be sufficient in the suppression of proliferation and cytokine secretion by effector cells. Furthermore, a frameshift mutation in Foxp3 results in a fatal syndrome of extensive immune activation, leading to the over secretion of numerous cytokines and multi organ infiltration by inflammatory cells…

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