Protein kinase

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    Achondroplasia Case Study

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    the absence of a bound ligand is termed “basal” phosphorylation. Once a ligand binds, a dimeric adapter protein Grb2 inhibits the basal phosphorylation of FGFR3 by catching the mobile kinase domain C-termini. Complete active phosphorylation and basal phosphorylation of the mutant FGFR3 gene are the fundamental components of what causes Achondroplasia. The normal function of the FGFR3 gene is to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in bones; moreover, the negative feedback of chondrocyte production provided by FGFR3 regulates bone growth (7). Once the fibroblast growth factor is bound, an MAPK signal pathway is initiated by FGFR3. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway can now relay the extracellular signal to trigger an intracellular response. The intracellular response provided by MAPK,…

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    Topotecan Research Paper

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    Topotecan is used to treat lung cancer as an anti-tumor treatment by destroying the cells and slowing down the growth as a preventative measure against cancer. Topotecan treats new found or relapsed small cell lung cancers using inhibitory properties of the drug. Overview It belongs to a group of cancer medicines known as antineoplastic, inhibiting cell growth and eventually elimination of the damaged cell. Like most cancer treatments, the distinction between healthy cells and cancer cells is…

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    The hormone insulin, is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhan in response to elevated levels of nutrients in the blood. Insulin triggers the uptake of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids into liver, adipose tissue and muscle and promotes the storage of these nutrients in the form of glycogen, lipids and protein respectively. Failure to uptake and store nutrients results in diabetes. (Hooper, 2018)…

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    In this pathway, NBS1 functions as an adaptor protein and promotes the phosphorylation of SMC1, which is required for the intra-S phase checkpoint activation after DNA double strand breaks. This branch of the S-phase checkpoint is distinct to the ATM/Chk2/Cdc25A pathway, but is very important for maintaining genomic stability, since cells from Nijmen syndrome patients, display checkpoint defects in S-phase (Yazdi et al,…

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    Musk Synthesis

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    MuSK consists of fourteen exons and is found on chromosome 4 in mice and on chromosome 9 in humans. The structure of MuSK is divided between the extracellular region, transmembrane domain (TM), juxtamembrane domain (JM) and a catalytic domain. The extracellular region includes four immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig) and between the two last one a cysteine-rich domain (C6) represented in Figure 6B. Then it follows the TM, which is located in the membrane of the muscle fiber, the JM and the tyrosine…

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    Apc Research Paper

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    a cell growth regulator. It inhibits uncontrolled growth of cells which may lead to cancer. Mutations of APC often lead to colorectal cancer. Small polyps, which are the overgrown cells, appear in the colon and later lead to malignancy. APC regulates how often the cell divides, the cell’s attachment the cells within a tissues, the morphogenesis of the cell’s 3D structures, and how the cell polarizes. In addition, the proteins check to make sure the number of chromosomes in cell division is…

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    Hepatic Angiogenesis

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    HCV-mediated hepatic angiogenesis and the related signaling pathways that can be target for current and under development therapeutic approaches. INTRODUCTION Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered one of the most common cancers worldwide. Therefore, the limited treatment options and poor prognosis of HCC patients emphasize the importance of the development of a new therapeutic strategy. Chronic liver diseases including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are the major risk factors for…

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    GLI3 Protein Summary

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    GLI3 protein, which is a zinc fingered protein and encoded in humans. It is a copy of GLI family and is translocated in patients who possess the Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome─GCPS. The mutation of the GLI3 protein is shown to cause various disorders such as, Pallister-Hall syndrome and postaxial polydactyl type A. The researchers were trying to demonstrate how a single gene mutation could cause these dissimilar developmental disorders in humans. Even though all three disorders can be…

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    Rac-Raw Research Paper

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    Downstream Targets Due to the lack of developing an effective Ras treatment, some have turned to targeting downstream effectors of Ras. Downstream effectors have a critical role in Ras carcinogenesis and are commonly found in KRAS mutated cancers. The most intensely targeted pathways are the Raf-MEK-ERK (MAPK) and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways. Raf-MEK-ERK MAPK signaling is initiated through receptor tyrosine kinases after their activation by growth factors (Mccubrey 2006). Once Ras is in its…

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    Some of the effectors which are activated are: Ca2+ sensitive and potassium channels, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, calcineurin and phosphorylase kinase. The Ca2+ sensitive and potassium channels are potassium channels either in the nucleus or cytoplasm which open and close in response to Ca2+. This channel regulates transmitter release, muscular contraction, excitation of neurons, up-regulation of gene expression, release of hormones and neurotransmitters (FABER and SAH, 2016). The…

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