Protein kinase

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  • Achondroplasia Case Study

    the absence of a bound ligand is termed “basal” phosphorylation. Once a ligand binds, a dimeric adapter protein Grb2 inhibits the basal phosphorylation of FGFR3 by catching the mobile kinase domain C-termini. Complete active phosphorylation and basal phosphorylation of the mutant FGFR3 gene are the fundamental components of what causes Achondroplasia. The normal function of the FGFR3 gene is to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in bones; moreover, the negative feedback of chondrocyte production provided by FGFR3 regulates bone growth (7). Once the fibroblast growth factor is bound, an MAPK signal pathway is initiated by FGFR3. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway can now relay the extracellular signal to trigger an intracellular response. The intracellular response provided by MAPK,…

    Words: 1420 - Pages: 6
  • Case Study 1.2 Cellular DNA Damage Responses

    In this pathway, NBS1 functions as an adaptor protein and promotes the phosphorylation of SMC1, which is required for the intra-S phase checkpoint activation after DNA double strand breaks. This branch of the S-phase checkpoint is distinct to the ATM/Chk2/Cdc25A pathway, but is very important for maintaining genomic stability, since cells from Nijmen syndrome patients, display checkpoint defects in S-phase (Yazdi et al,…

    Words: 1513 - Pages: 7
  • Musk Synthesis

    MuSK consists of fourteen exons and is found on chromosome 4 in mice and on chromosome 9 in humans. The structure of MuSK is divided between the extracellular region, transmembrane domain (TM), juxtamembrane domain (JM) and a catalytic domain. The extracellular region includes four immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig) and between the two last one a cysteine-rich domain (C6) represented in Figure 6B. Then it follows the TM, which is located in the membrane of the muscle fiber, the JM and the tyrosine…

    Words: 255 - Pages: 2
  • Apc Research Paper

    a cell growth regulator. It inhibits uncontrolled growth of cells which may lead to cancer. Mutations of APC often lead to colorectal cancer. Small polyps, which are the overgrown cells, appear in the colon and later lead to malignancy. APC regulates how often the cell divides, the cell’s attachment the cells within a tissues, the morphogenesis of the cell’s 3D structures, and how the cell polarizes. In addition, the proteins check to make sure the number of chromosomes in cell division is…

    Words: 576 - Pages: 3
  • JNK Biochemistry

    JNK is one of the three branches of MAPK superfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. Other members of this superfamily are p38 kinases and the ERKs (Kyriakis and Avruch, 2012). In mammals, there are 3 JNK genes: Jnk1, Jnk2, and Jnk3 on 3 different chromosomes, and each mammalian JNK gene has alternative splicing forms (Derijard et al., 1994). JNK is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The JNK pathway plays a major role in apoptosis. JNK pathway is required for…

    Words: 993 - Pages: 4
  • Rac-Raw Research Paper

    Downstream Targets Due to the lack of developing an effective Ras treatment, some have turned to targeting downstream effectors of Ras. Downstream effectors have a critical role in Ras carcinogenesis and are commonly found in KRAS mutated cancers. The most intensely targeted pathways are the Raf-MEK-ERK (MAPK) and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways. Raf-MEK-ERK MAPK signaling is initiated through receptor tyrosine kinases after their activation by growth factors (Mccubrey 2006). Once Ras is in its…

    Words: 895 - Pages: 4
  • Proteomic Organization Of Co-Mmad And I-Smads Case Study

    Smad proteins in the resting state realize passive nucleo cytoplasmic shuttling, that is controlled by two opposing signals: the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the MH1 domain and the nuclear export signal (NES) in the MH2 domain. Then they interact with DNA binding proteins or directly regulate transcriptional activity, either as monomers or in association with Smad4 (Carreira et al., 2014 [6]; Liu et al., 1996 [49]). In the nucleus they can regulate transcription of target genes by…

    Words: 931 - Pages: 4
  • High Calcium Pumps And Exchanger

    Some of the effectors which are activated are: Ca2+ sensitive and potassium channels, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, calcineurin and phosphorylase kinase. The Ca2+ sensitive and potassium channels are potassium channels either in the nucleus or cytoplasm which open and close in response to Ca2+. This channel regulates transmitter release, muscular contraction, excitation of neurons, up-regulation of gene expression, release of hormones and neurotransmitters (FABER and SAH, 2016). The…

    Words: 1470 - Pages: 6
  • CTNB1 Case Study

    The multifunctional protein, beta-catenin (CTNNB1) acts on many critical roles in the cell life cycle, including cell differentiation, proliferation and cell-cell contact (Ozwan et al., 1989), CTNNB1 plays a central role in canonical WNT signaling pathway to success the gene transcription process (Clevers and Nusse., 2012). Regulation and degradation of CTNNB1 take place at the cellular level through phosphorylation of serine and/or threonine amino acid residues. Specific kinase proteins…

    Words: 942 - Pages: 4
  • Gba Research Paper

    Receptors are protein molecules that receive chemical signals in the form of ligands and induce responses at cellular level. They are localized at the cell surface, cytoplasm or the nucleus, depending on their amino acid sequences. In addition to using these three different localizations to categorize receptors, the types of action of receptors are also used as a mean of classification. The four main classifications of receptors are: 1. Ionotropic (or ligand-gated ion channel) receptors, 2.…

    Words: 739 - Pages: 3
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