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    Proton Radiotherapy

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    Proton radiotherapy is a new type of treatment that is becoming the new standard of approaching a common tumor among children. Support by researchers, there is evidence that proton radiotherapy actually reducing some long-term side effects such as less severe cognitive damage, while maintaining the same hormonal levels as the older form of therapy (photon radiotherapy). One primary difference between the two therapies revolves around the way in which radiation passes through the patient’s body, which has made serious improvements that some people may not be aware of. Photon radiotherapy actually uses radiation with the X-ray beam which passes through the patient’s whole body, while the newer, more beneficial process utilizes radiation to…

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    High temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) are a promising clean technology, especially for automobile applications.1 These devices generate electricity from the chemical reactions that occur in the anode side of the cell, using H2 as a fuel and generating heat and water as by-products.2, 3 However, experimental studies using HT-PEMFCs show that degradation of the cell can occur after certain hours of operation (around 500 hours).4 Some of the factors that contribute to the…

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    Lithium And Electrons

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    Lithium is the chemical element of atomic number 3, a soft silver-white metal. It is the lightest of the alkali metals. The two main parts of every atom are neutrons and protons. The three main subatomic particles that form an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electrons are the smallest of the three particles that make up atoms. Electrons are found in shells or orbitals that surround the nucleus of an atom. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus. They group together in the center…

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    The Physics of PET Scans All elements are composed of atoms, which are composed of small particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. The nucleus of an atom is made of a tightly packed collection of protons and neutrons. You would think that with positively charged protons being packed so closely together the nucleus would fall apart, however this is not the case. There is an attractive force called the “nuclear force” which is able to overcome the repulsive force of the adjacent…

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    Hydrogen is an Alkali earth metal in group 1 on the periodic table. Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1 and an atomic number of 1. Hydrogen has 1 VALENCE electron and 1 neutron. It has 1 ring, because it’s in period 1. Hydrogens state of matter is gas. Lithium is a Alkali Earth Metal on the Periodic Table. Lithium's state or matter is solid. Lithium has a atomic number of 3 and an atomic mass of 7 when rounded. It has 1 valence electron around its nucleus and 4 neutrons in the nucleus. Lithium has…

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    Beta-decay spectroscopy of the neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei Introduction Neutron-rich nuclei in rare-earth region are the most collective nuclei in nature since their protons and neutrons are lying far away from the shell closure limit, which proton shell closure are Z=50 and Z=82, and neutron shell closure are N=82 and N=126[1]. For example, the doubly mid-shell nucleus 170Dy[1] which has proton number Z=66 and neutron number N=104 is considered as the most collective in that region. Until…

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    matter which cannot be broken down any further .an atom consist of sub atomic particles which are protons, neutrons and electrons .I will be looking at specifically the atom lead. Every element in the Periodic Table has been given a letter symbol , the symbol for lead is Pb.i will now describe the sub atomic particle in lead .protons are in the nucleus of the atom , All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. This number…

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    Carbon-12 has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus, as shown on the diagram. Outside of the nucleus, this atom has five electrons. The protons are shown in the color orange, neutrons are in the color blue, and electrons in the color teal. The scientific principle subatomic particles says they are smaller than the atom itself, meaning protons with a positive charge, neutrons with a neutral charge, and electrons with a negative charge are all subatomic particles. By establishing this…

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    gap. This caused collisions, which was able to produce an X-ray wave. Using his observations, Moseley was able to conclude that there was a relationship between the number of protons, the wavelength of the X-ray, and the atomic number. Before this, atomic numbers were used without any particular meaning, just to represent the order of elements on the periodic table. Now, because of Moseley, people understand that the atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in the nucleus. Moseley was…

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    nucleus, known as the proton. This discovery then rearranged the periodic table by atomic number rather than atomic mass. In 1927, Werner Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle, which states that the more precisely the position of a particle is determined, the less likely it’s momentum can be known, and vice versa. Lastly, in 1932, James Chadwick discovered the neutron, which is the neutrally charged particle in the nucleus. The modern view of the atomic structure is that the…

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