Proteomics

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    and physical symptoms (jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss) do not present until the cancer is in its later stages. As a result, the best way of treating pancreatic cancer is to detect and treat it in its early stages. With that being said, there have been no real advances in the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Most current methods of detection, such as biopsies, are too invasive and costly. However, recent research has shown that proteomic analysis of saliva can be used to identify the progression of certain systemic cancers. More specifically, differences in the protein composition of saliva of patients with lung cancer and healthy individuals have been shown to predict the progression of malignant cells. By applying these same principles to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, this experiment aims to identify protein biomarkers that can potentially be used in the early detection of the cancer. In order to identify possible biomarkers for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, this experiment will employ a variety of proteomic techniques. First, salivary samples will be collected from volunteers with and without pancreatic cancer. The protein concentration for each individual sample will then be determined by bichinchoninic (BCA) assay. BCA assay is used to determine protein concentration by measuring the amount of reduced cuprous ions that are generated by chelating copper with proteins in the sample. The reduced cuprous ion then reacts with BCA, forming a…

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    Figure 2. The proteomic organization of three subfamilies of Smads (Co-Smad, R-Smad and I-Smad) and organization of a Smad MH1 domain with DNA. (A) All Smads information taken from PDB entry Smad>UniProt Gene list of Smads. The conserved N-terminal MH1 domain is in red, linker region in dark blue and the C-terminal MH2 domain in deep yellow. In the linker region the red PXS/TP (or S/TP) indicates the potential phosphorylation site for MAPKs ERK1/2, and the square indicates the PY…

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    and epigenome (Topol, 2014, p. 241). This information can now give rise to the exceptional and unparalleled opportunity to improve medical treatment for those with cancer and develop the preventative strategies required to maintain health (Topol, 2014, p. 241). Topol (2014, p. 248) states that the current classification of cancer, based upon the organ of origin should now be considered unsuitable and inadequate. This is due to the knowledge of the driving mutations and pathways that can be…

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    Introduction: One of the most common mass spectrometry–based proteomic methodologies used to day is the bottom up protein identification. First, the protein has to be digested into peptides using a protease. Then, the peptide will be submitted to the URMC Proteomics Resource and Laboratory for analysis using LC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, the peptides will be separated and introduced into a mass spectrometer using reversed phase liquid chromatography (RC-LC). This…

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    Pt1420 Exercise 1

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    proteins? Proteins are large, complex mole­cules made up of chains of small chemical compounds called amino acids. 6. What do proteins do? The proteins perform most life functions and even comprise the majority of cellular structures. Chemical properties that distinguish the 20 different amino acids cause the protein chains to fold up into specific three-dimensional structures that define their particular functions in the cell. 7. What determines a protein's chemistry and behavior? A…

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    Lovastatin Research Paper

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    perturbation of protein expression in HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell. The aim of this study is also to observe whether lovastatin-induced down-regulation of glutamate synthetase, carbonate dehydratase II, estrogen receptor and steroid receptor RNA activator I contributes to the cytotoxic effect of lovastatin. Besides, previous studies revealed the upstream events on the inhibition of sodium/ hydrogen antiporter which were unclear. Therefore, a mass spectrometry along with SILAC…

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    One of the most prevalent diseases that affect a big percentage of the population is known as type 2 diabetes or diabetes mellitus. The main issue with this disease is that it can affect the body through different ways. A common definition of type 2 diabetes is when the body resists insulin which affects how the body processes glucose or blood sugar. There are different ways to identify and diagnose type 2 diabetes but one of the most common methods is through urine in which the doctors try to…

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    While the elements in the ethylene signaling pathway have been identified, we are only beginning to understand the mechanism by which these proteins interact to mediate ethylene responses, especially the early steps in the pathway: receptorsCTR1EIN2. Genetic studies revealed that the kinase activity of CTR1 is essential for its function and proteomics analysis identified several phosphorylation sites on the EIN2 proteins, a subset of which were enriched in the air as compared to ethylene;…

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    standards of critical appraisal. Unfortunately my critical appraisal was written in a very short period of time due to being unwell, however I believe I have gained a good knowledge and understanding of how to criticise a paper. I have followed all instruction that been given for student on Canvas, to make it more straightforward. I can defiantly say that my writing skills have improved after learning how to criticise a paper. I understood importance of scientific writing and how it is going to…

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    These all relate to open challenges in metabolomics for refined the phenotypic description of cattle (1) determine key metabolic process to provide tools for improving cattle husbandry/nutrition (2) identify potential biomarkers for animal selection (3). I am already working on these three major challenges and disseminating the findings. As current work matures, I am looking forward to the opportunity to focus on these challenges and integrate with a large scale "omics" capability (genomics,…

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