Proterozoic

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    Prior to the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) there was little oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygenation of the atmosphere occurred in two steps, at the beginning and end of the Proterozoic eon (Frei, et al., 2013). In the GOE the surface oceans began to become oxygenated (Holland, 2006). The Second stage of oxygenation is known as the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE) and occurred after the 650-635Ma in the Marinoan glaciation (Sahoo, et al., 2012) (Feulner & Kienert, 2014). The NOE is thought to represent either further oxygenation (Holland, 2009) or deep ocean oxygenation (Canfield, 1998). This event is marked by resurgence in Banded Iron Formation (BIF) deposits which mark this second marine oxidation (Ilyin, 2009) (Frei, et al., 2009). The Marinoan and the Sturtian glaciations were two…

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    Neotectonics In Australia

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    This image was source from en.wikipedia.org The crust of the continent is made principally of Archaean, Proterozoic and some Palaeozoic rocks and gneisses. A thin layer that is mostly Phanerozoic sedimentary basins covers a significant part of the Australian landmass; these are about 7km think. These thus are at present experiencing erosion by a mixture of aeolian and fluvial actions. The Australia continent has three major continental blocks: these include the Yilgarn Craton being the oldest…

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    Toward north is a reverse type fault bearing Pleistocene gravel across folded Proterozoic deposit is revealed near Terowie (Love et al., 1995, p. 270). Also confirmed on the north-eastern piedmont of the Flinders Ranges is severe folding of Miocene silcrete and related faulting, furthermore, and in slight magnitude, within the highland (Coats et al, 1969). On the northern Flinders ranges the east-plunging Mt Babbage thrust has conveyed Mesoproterozoic rock across Late Pleistocene and Holocene…

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    Eukaryote Cell Evolution

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    Bacteria had been in existence for billions of years however, 1.6bya during the Proterozoic era, we suddenly find the emergence of complex eukaryotic cells. All eukaryote cells share one common ancestor which emerged just once in 4 billion years of life on earth and all plants, protists, algae, animals and fungi are constituted by these cells. The cellular structure of bacteria and eukaryotes are so different there is no evidence to support the ‘directional’ evolution of eukaryotes from…

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    Phanerozoic? Name one important evolutionary event in each of those eras. Paleozoic The big incident of this era is the Cambrian explosion that happened 540 million years ago. Mesozoic Angiosperms were diversified during this era Cenozoic Mammals increase in size 2. Define/explain the following terms: Ediacaran, diagenesis, stromatolite, permineralized,…

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    The Homestake Gold Mine

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    1991). The Homestake formation is an iron and magnesium rich carbonate (Rye, Doe, and Delevaux 1974). The magnesium rich mineral is sideroplesite (magnesium sericite) (Norton 1971). There is also grunerite and cummingtonite found in the Homestake Formation (Morelli et al. 2010). The gold is hosted within a quartz veined sulfide rich segments of a carbonate iron formation, which are early Proterozoic in age (Caddey et al. 1991). The sulfide minerals that are associated with the gold are…

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    Mt. Isa Mine

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    Isa deposit occurred in an intracontinental rift to passive margin environment with complicated history (Hutton et al. 2012). This rift environment produced the fluid source and fluid pathways. There are also orebodies deposition which occurred due to sedimentation but it appeared late in extensional cycle. It is found that the age of mineralization of Mt. Isa is approximately 1870 million years old (Forrestal, 1990). During that period, the oldest and nominated basement was disfigured and…

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    741-759 Corrigan, D., Galley, A.G., Pehrsson, S., 2007, Tectonic evolution and metallogeny of the southwestern Trans-Hudson Orogen, in Goodfellow, W.D., ed., Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit-Types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods: Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication No. 5, p. 881-902 Eggleton, R.A., Banfield, J.F., 1985, The alteration of granitic biotite to chlorite,…

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    Biological Big Bang Theory

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    factors. Intrinsic (biological) causes refer to mechanisms inside the Precambrian biosphere that triggered diversification and the so called evolution to begin. For instance, (Carroll, 1995) the discovery of mutation in genetics, whereby a hox gene in an ancestral metazoan is responsible of triggering a huge morphological transformation in animals. For the Extrinsic (environmental) factors, they are physical transformations in Precambrian surroundings, which includes splitting apart of…

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    35 miles towards the east. The newly exposed rock formations began to weather and in concert with continued crustal movements, exposed the older formations beneath them. Most recently, beginning 1 million years ago, the area entered an ice age that hastened the erosion and sharp features that can be seen in Glacier National Park today. With such a long and varied past, the geology beneath Sperry Glacier includes a mix of metamorphic minerals like quartzite, fine grained siltite, and biogenic…

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