Endothelium

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    lesions on a patient that show this abnormal vessel structure. Recent studies have shown that there are two different types of patterns for this disease: spontaneous and autosomal dominant (Brouillard et. al 2007). Inherited VMs are shown to be caused by mutation in the EC specific receptor tyrosine kinase TIE2, which is also known as TEK, located on chromosome 9p21 (Brouillard et. al 2007). Two mutations have been reported, R849W and Y897S, both of which increase ligand-independent auto-phosphorylation of the receptor, without causing an increase in EC formation (Brouillard et. al 2007). While more information is known on the inherited cases of VMs, little is known about the spontaneous formation of VMs. However, a study showed that the endothelium in VMs is not proliferative meaning that the observed deficiency of smooth muscles is a result of diminished recruitment rather than an increase in proliferation of ECs (Vikkula et. al 1998). Therefore, before we dive into possible causes for spontaneous VMs, we must first take a look at how SMCs work. Smooth Muscle Cells Smooth muscle cells can be differentiated into two main types: single and multiunit smooth muscles (Hill et. al 2016). In a single unit smooth muscle cell, gap junctions are used to send signals between the cells (Hill et. al 2016). However, in multiunit smooth muscles, the muscle cells function as independent units because there are few, if any, gap junctions (Hill et. al 2016). This would be used to describe…

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    Smoking Affects The Body

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    is an avid smoker. Because the patient has a long history of smoking and an increased blood pressure and pulse, the patient has a high susceptibility to atherosclerosis which resulted in W.R.’s hypertension. Smoking injures endothelium cells, which is located in the tunica intima of the blood vessel. The tunica intima is the layer of the vessel that comes in contact with the blood inside of the lumen. Once endothelial cells are injured, chemotactic agents and mitosis- inducing, or growth…

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    Epithelium Essay

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    Aim 1: Analyzing the formation of the epithelium of visceral endoderm surrounding the internal cavity in locally-instructed embryoids Sub-aim 1.1: Investigating the formation of an endodermal epithelium around the cavity Rationale: VE is derived from PrE, an epithelial tissue that separates the ICM from the blastocoel. PrE and Epiblast (Epi) cells exist in a ‘salt and pepper’ manner in the ICM by E3.5, which can be visualized by the complementary expression patterns of Gata6 (PrE) and Nanog…

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    Stroke Recovery

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    LITERATURE REVIEW Stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide and a leading cause of disability. But the treatment options for the management of stroke are limited. Thrombolytic reperfusion with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is employed in acute phase in only less than 3% of all ischemic stroke patients while standard treatments involving rehabilitation provide some benefits for the recovery during chronic phase. However, many high-profile failures in a…

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    Arteries

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    ARTERIES The walls of arteries contain flat and smooth muscle fibre that deal and relax under the guidelines of the sympathetic nervous system. The functions of the arteries are: transport blood away from the heart and transport oxygenated blood only. Arteries have four different parts, which are lumen, endothelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue. In arteries, the function of the lumen is to fires blood into the arteries at a high pressure, and they are very thick. The endothelium is made…

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    thickening in the arterial wall called an Atheroma (or "fibro-fatty plaque"). Atheroma narrows the lumen of arteries and weakens the vessel wall. Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and slowly progresses throughout life. Typically, it produces symptomatic clinical disease during the fifth and sixth decades of life. The atheromatous plaque is a raised lesion within the intima of arteries composed of a core of cholesterol, necrotic cellular debris and inflammatory cells. This is covered by a…

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    Atherogenesis Lab Report

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    Mechanism Atherogenesis is the developmental process of athermanous plaques. It is characterized by a remodeling of arteries leading to sub endothelial accumulation of fatty substances called plaques. The buildup of an athermanous plaque is a slow process, developed over a period of several years through a complex series of cellular events occurring within the arterial wall and in response to a variety of local vascular circulating factors. One recent hypothesis , leukocyte, such as momocyte or…

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    Myocardial Infarction

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    beat) multiplied by heart rate (beats per minute). Peripheral vascular resistance is the opposition to the flow of blood that the heart must overcome, which can increase due to an occlusion or vessel edema. With hypertension, cardiac output and stroke volume decreases as heart rate and peripheral resistance increases due to overcompensation of the heart (Huether & McCance 2012). When the heart beats, it propels blood through the arteries to increase circulation throughout your entire body.…

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    1) Angina is a chest pain caused by your heart muscle not getting enough oxygen-rich blood. The pain from angina can also cause pain in your shoulders, neck, arms, jaw, and back. Why angina is a warning sign for something more serious. Any pain in your body can have an explanation and when you are getting pain it is always important to get it checked out because angina is a pain that is caused by your heart. This could be a warning that you are getting a heart attack, or you could have a heart…

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    Cornea Research Paper

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    fibrils in the stroma. The light scatter by individual fibrils is cancelled by destructive interference from the scattered light from other individual fibrils and the second is the spacing of the neighboring collagen fibrils in the stroma must be < 200 nm for there to be transparent. IV. Descemet’s membrane Is the forth layer, it is a thin acellular layer that serves as the modified basement membrane of the corneal endothelium, formed by secretion of corneal endothelium and composed of…

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