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  • Research Paper On Vascular Anomalies

    lesions on a patient that show this abnormal vessel structure. Recent studies have shown that there are two different types of patterns for this disease: spontaneous and autosomal dominant (Brouillard et. al 2007). Inherited VMs are shown to be caused by mutation in the EC specific receptor tyrosine kinase TIE2, which is also known as TEK, located on chromosome 9p21 (Brouillard et. al 2007). Two mutations have been reported, R849W and Y897S, both of which increase ligand-independent auto-phosphorylation of the receptor, without causing an increase in EC formation (Brouillard et. al 2007). While more information is known on the inherited cases of VMs, little is known about the spontaneous formation of VMs. However, a study showed that the endothelium in VMs is not proliferative meaning that the observed deficiency of smooth muscles is a result of diminished recruitment rather than an increase in proliferation of ECs (Vikkula et. al 1998). Therefore, before we dive into possible causes for spontaneous VMs, we must first take a look at how SMCs work. Smooth Muscle Cells Smooth muscle cells can be differentiated into two main types: single and multiunit smooth muscles (Hill et. al 2016). In a single unit smooth muscle cell, gap junctions are used to send signals between the cells (Hill et. al 2016). However, in multiunit smooth muscles, the muscle cells function as independent units because there are few, if any, gap junctions (Hill et. al 2016). This would be used to describe…

    Words: 1329 - Pages: 6
  • Smoking Affects The Body

    is an avid smoker. Because the patient has a long history of smoking and an increased blood pressure and pulse, the patient has a high susceptibility to atherosclerosis which resulted in W.R.’s hypertension. Smoking injures endothelium cells, which is located in the tunica intima of the blood vessel. The tunica intima is the layer of the vessel that comes in contact with the blood inside of the lumen. Once endothelial cells are injured, chemotactic agents and mitosis- inducing, or growth…

    Words: 1325 - Pages: 6
  • Epithelium Essay

    Aim 1: Analyzing the formation of the epithelium of visceral endoderm surrounding the internal cavity in locally-instructed embryoids Sub-aim 1.1: Investigating the formation of an endodermal epithelium around the cavity Rationale: VE is derived from PrE, an epithelial tissue that separates the ICM from the blastocoel. PrE and Epiblast (Epi) cells exist in a ‘salt and pepper’ manner in the ICM by E3.5, which can be visualized by the complementary expression patterns of Gata6 (PrE) and Nanog…

    Words: 1122 - Pages: 5
  • Myocardial Infarction

    beat) multiplied by heart rate (beats per minute). Peripheral vascular resistance is the opposition to the flow of blood that the heart must overcome, which can increase due to an occlusion or vessel edema. With hypertension, cardiac output and stroke volume decreases as heart rate and peripheral resistance increases due to overcompensation of the heart (Huether & McCance 2012). When the heart beats, it propels blood through the arteries to increase circulation throughout your entire body.…

    Words: 577 - Pages: 3
  • Cornea Research Paper

    fibrils in the stroma. The light scatter by individual fibrils is cancelled by destructive interference from the scattered light from other individual fibrils and the second is the spacing of the neighboring collagen fibrils in the stroma must be < 200 nm for there to be transparent. IV. Descemet’s membrane Is the forth layer, it is a thin acellular layer that serves as the modified basement membrane of the corneal endothelium, formed by secretion of corneal endothelium and composed of…

    Words: 1693 - Pages: 7
  • Atherosclerosis Research Paper Outline

    1) Angina is a chest pain caused by your heart muscle not getting enough oxygen-rich blood. The pain from angina can also cause pain in your shoulders, neck, arms, jaw, and back. Why angina is a warning sign for something more serious. Any pain in your body can have an explanation and when you are getting pain it is always important to get it checked out because angina is a pain that is caused by your heart. This could be a warning that you are getting a heart attack, or you could have a heart…

    Words: 706 - Pages: 3
  • Circulatory Coronary System

    an overgrowth of smooth muscle cells, covered with a collagen-rich connective tissue cap and this plaque build-up bulges into the vessel lumen.” (Silverthorn et al., 2009 p327). The body does a good job adapting to the needs of the heart as blood flow is required to move throughout the body, the heart is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and influenced by the hormone epinephrine, both assist the body when blood delivery needs are high (Silverthorn et al., 2009 p331). However, when the…

    Words: 1384 - Pages: 6
  • Coronary Artery Disease Essay

    Pathophysiology behind Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease also known as CAD is a condition where there is a build up on the inside lining of the artery usually composed of cholesterol or plaques. This can cause the narrowing of the coronary artery lumen, which can then reduce the volume of blood that pass through them. The lack of poor blood flow can lead to myocardial ischemia, which is a lack of blood flow to the heart and it can lead to heart tissue death. Another condition…

    Words: 529 - Pages: 3
  • Stent Case Study

    Implantation of a stent within a coronary artery alters the local hemodynamics modifying the shear stress upon the endothelium. 14 Low endothelial shear stress causes a phenotypic change in which can induce a phenotypic switch in the smooth muscle cells from contractile to secretory as well as increase migration into the intima and proliferation. 15 Overall, regular or high endothelial shear stress maintains the contractile phenotype of the smooth muscle cells therefore inhibiting neointimal…

    Words: 1727 - Pages: 7
  • Cholesterol Case Study Essay

    for many years and obesity (160 kg) specially weight gain after his retirement and lack of physical activity may mainly contributing him to developing atherosclerosis. Also increasing age can alter the endothelial layer of the blood vessels can leads to risk of developing atherosclerosis. Furthermore, gender could influence the risk of developing atherosclerosis where females has low risk of developing atherosclerosis due to sex hormones contribution but men has high risk of developing…

    Words: 1089 - Pages: 5
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