Hydrogen bond

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    Nt1310 Unit 2 Protein

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    substrate found in the other dimer. Q11) There definitely is an advantage as the binding of the substrate can change the interaction between the two dimers in the interface, changing the shape of the interface. This could give rise to allosteric properties and cooperativity in this protein. Q12) The magnesium ion is found in the effector binding site and it stabilizes the binding of ADP to this site by interacting with the negatively charged oxygen atoms on the phosphate group of ADP and by interacting with amino acids of the proteins such as Glu 187 and Gly 185. Q13) The hydrogen bonds to ADP and FBP seem to end in empty space as they connect to side chains of the amino acids in the proteins which are not shown in this structure. An example of this is the hydrogen bond between the oxygen atom of FBP and nitrogen atom in the side chain of His 249. Another example of such is the hydrogen bond between another oxygen on the FBP and the oxygen atom of Glu 222. Q14) The allosteric effector molecules are located in the large interface within the dimers. It is important that the activator and inhibitor bind to the protein at the same place as the protein cannot be both inhibited and activated at the same time. So the binding at the same site can either cause competition at the effector site (competitive inhibition) or can cause a structural change at that site so the other cannot bind to the protein. Q15) Several positively charged arginine residues are needed to…

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    Polarity means that the molecule has both a positively and negatively charged end. Water is called a universal solvent as it is able to dissolve so many common substances. Its polarity is responsible for its effectiveness in dissolving other polar molecules and ionic compounds, such as sugar and salt. This is very important, because for most biological reactions to occur, the reactants must be dissolved in water. The hydrogen bond is a weak bond that often forms between the hydrogen atoms and…

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    Water Quality Lab Report

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    will compare the water quality of Freshwater Creek over the last three years using chemistry to show how the three chosen parameters are all linked and affect the overall quality of the water. Water is combination of two atoms, oxygen and hydrogen. When two hydrogen’s bond with one oxygen it makes a covalent bond. A covalent bond relates to the outer shell of electrons (valence shell) being shared with the neighbouring molecule for them to bond. A covalent bond only occurs between two…

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    Exothermic Reaction Lab

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    Energy profile of exothermic reaction Energy profile of endothermic reaction A)Doc Brown (2016) B)Doc Brown (2016) Thermodynamic reactions occur when there is a difference of energy during a chemical reaction. There are two types; Firstly, Exothermic reactions; This is when the initial reactants use less energy to break their existing bonds, than what energy was required to make the new bonds. The extra heat is spreads out into the surroundings (see above diagram A) An…

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    Structure Of Water

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    water molecule, there is one oxygen that has six valence electrons in its outer shell and acts as the central atom. Two of these electrons is shared with the two hydrogen atoms which have one valance electron each in their outer shell giving a chemical formula of H2O. This shared pair helps to fill…

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    Tap Water Importance

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    The two types of electrical bonding with the oxygen and hydrogen molecules are covalent and ionic. Ionic is weaker than covalent, and involves two opposite charges being attractive one another. Covalent bonding is slightly stronger, which shares the outermost valence electrons with other atoms. Covalent bonding is the attraction which keeps the hydrogen and oxygen atoms together. The key importance for water to have the variety of properties is due to the structure of having hydrogen and oxygen…

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    have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I) which are the elements in group 7 in periodic table. Halogenoalkanes have the general formula, RX, whereby R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group and X is any of the halogen atom. Besides, halogenoalkanes can also be classified into three categories according to what is attached to the functional group such as primary, secondary and tertiary halogenoalkane. In experiment…

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    Iodoform Test

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    group (double bond oxygen to a carbon). There are many types of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides etc. Aldehydes and ketones are the oxidation products of alcohols. Depending on the alcohol’s structure, the product obtained will be different. Primary alcohols have one carbon and two hydrogen atoms attached will produce aldehyde and then to carboxylic acid in two steps by oxidation. While secondary alcohols have two carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom…

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    Acetone Synthesis Essay

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    derivative was 118°C-128°C, which was lower than the literature value of 144°C, indicating that there were some impurities in the substance. A possible reason for the lower melting point of the derivative could be the presence of moisture. This was followed by the NMR analysis and IR spectroscopy. Based on the NMR analysis, it was concluded that the compound was 2-pentanone. There was a confirmation of 4 distinct peaks, reflecting the 4 distinct types of hydrogen. The area represented by…

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    a-lane. Each tetrahedron exhibits reflective symmetry as well, because of the formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen molecules. Phase III now has the highest degree of symmetry, formed from the said hydrogen bonds and their geometrical arrangement. When the temperature is raised 400K, Phase II starts to occur. The hydrogen bonds mentioned above in their geometrical arrangement are now changed to form in a [310] direction, and the molecule now exhibits vertical…

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