Chemical bond

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    Understanding the fundamental characteristics of water is important for both scientific and practical reasons. Hence, this paper deals the origin of the water on Earth, molecular characteristics of water and chemical bonds, influences of temperature, conductivity and salinity, and water cycle and constituents. There are multiple theories about the origin of water on Earth, and all the theories suggest that the water come from outer space. The universe with all its extension has some common elements that are found. The atom found most of the universe is hydrogen, and a molecule often found in the universe is water. Water an earth and space is also found in the solid state that is ice.1 The best known theory about the origin of water on Earth suggests that the water came to Earth with comets. In the beginning, the comets collided with planet. Comets brought ice water, but the Earth had high temperatures. Therefore, the ice water turned into steam when they came into contact with the atmosphere of Earth. 2 As the Earth cooled the water started condensed becoming liquid water, and thereby going to the ground to create the oceans, lakes, and rivers.2 This is the most common theory about the origin of water on Earth. The water is known for its chemical…

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    Chromate: Polyatomic Ions

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    Chromate The Prefix word “poly” implies to the word many, but even ions of two atoms are usually referred to as polyatomic. Majority of the Polyatomic ions that are used with Oxygen will have the word “ate” in them. Nitrate is an example of a Polyatomic Ion. Polyatomic Ions are referred to as a radical, and less commonly, as a radical group. There are many differences between a polyatomic ion and a compound. Polyatomic ions are composed of two or more atoms that are linked to covalent…

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    Essay On Alkanols

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    Alkanols consist of three levels known as primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary alkanols occur when the hydroxyl group bonds with the first carbon atom of the chain. Secondary alkanols form when the hydroxyl group bonds with the second carbon atom of the chain and tertiary alkanols occur when the hydroxyl group bonds with the third carbon atom of the chain. Both primary and secondary alkanols can be oxidized however tertiary alkanols cannot (ausetute, NA). As the number of Carbon atoms in the…

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    A covalent chemical bond is a link that contains electrons which are shared between two atoms. 9. A polar bond is where the electrons forming the bond are not distributed equally between the two atoms of the bond. A nonpolar bond shares a pair of electrons with each other between two atoms of the bond. Water is polar because it has 18 electrons and it only holds 16 so there are 2 left which makes it unevenly distributed between hydrogen and oxygen. 10. An ion is a molecule or atom that gets…

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    They are responsible for physical properties of compounds such as crystal structures, melting points, boiling points, vaporization, viscosity and surface tension, but not the chemical behavior of the three states of matter; when a molecular substance changes states, the atoms within the molecule are unchanged. These properties can therefore be used in identifying an unknown sample by comparing for example its observed melting range with other known compounds. Similarly these properties can be…

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    Thermodynamics: Molecules

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    nitrogen. Chemistry is concerned with the way atoms link together to form molecules, which are the natural chemical units of matter. Molecules represent the smallest particle of a chemical compound which retains the characteristics and chemical properties of the compound. With the rare exception of certain single atom molecules, almost all molecules consist of two or more atoms linked together. An atom of the violently active metal sodium (Na) linked to an atom of the poisonous gas chlorine…

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    in isolated atoms. This means that the VBT retains the individuality of the atoms composing molecule. The problem can be resolved by introducing the resonance theory, but with the loss of the original valence bond model. Hund[ 173], Mulliken[ 174], Van Vleck[175], Helsenberg[176], Jones[ 177] and others suggested an alternate treatment which is entirely different and more satisfactory. According to MOT, the valency electrons are considered to be associated with all the nuclei concerned. The…

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    Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share pairs of electrons. Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which are gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most valence electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability (Chem wiki) Nonmetals will readily form covalent bonds with other nonmetals in order to obtain stability, and can form anywhere between one to three covalent bonds with other nonmetals depending on…

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    Influence Electrons

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    Additionally, the shapes of NH3 and PH3 are quite similar, as they both use Trigonal Pyramidal (Four Subtituents) Geometry. NH3 would ultimately have a stronger attraction, due to nitrogen's higher level of electronegativity.This particular chemical compound is identified as Copper (II)…

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    Isotopes Pre Lab

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    A buffer maintains the pH level of a substance by releasing or accepting H+ ions to adjust the concentration within the substance. It contains both a base and an acid in order for it to react with either added H+ or OH- ions. Take for example the following chemical equation: HCO3 + H+ → H2CO3. In this equation the buffer bicarbonate encounters H+ ions or an acidic substance containing these ions and bonds with them in order to form carbonic acid. This reduces the number of free acidic H+ ions…

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