Hydroxide

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    four samples. With its very high pH of 12, it can be predicted that sample number 2 is the oven cleaner that contains Sodium Hydroxide. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is highly corrosive due to its elements; the presence of oxygen and an electrolyte (Sodium – Na) cause corrosion, the breakdown of a metal resulting from reactions with chemicals in its environment. The oxygen oxidizes with the metal, and the sodium help speed up the corrosion process. The presence of oxygen and electrolytes (Sodium – Na) in sample number 2 make it more…

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    Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution as well as determine the molar concentration in as strong acid and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. We used volumetric analysis, also known as titration, in both experiments. The average molar concentration for NaOH was 0.2749 mol/L while the average molar concentration of the acid solution was .2493 mol/L.The average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar was found to be 12.3 %…

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    Evidence and Analysis: The literature Ksp for calcium hydroxide is 5.02×〖10〗^(-6), which is a relatively large Ksp value. This goes against the “rules of solubility” that labels calcium hydroxide as insoluble. According to the “rules of solubility”, calcium hydroxide should not be soluble in water; however, our results reveal that it does have some degree of solubility at standard conditions. We know this because we started with an initial concentration of calcium hydroxide and no concentration…

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    Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), universally referred to as lime water or slaked lime is formed by reacting hydrated lime (calcium oxide, CaO) with water (H2O)[1] CaO (s) + H2O (l) ⇌ Ca(OH)2 (aq) (ΔHr = −63.7 kJ/mol of CaO) Calcium hydroxide is an economically favorable alkaline reagent to neutralize acid as it yields 2 moles of (OH)2 for every 1 mole of Ca(OH)2 (which is slightly soluble in water) when compared to sodium hydroxide [1] and it may separate from the solution ‘constant agitation must…

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    The initial hypothesis that was made regarding the strength of the solid compounds was supported with this experiment. The hypothesis stated that potassium hydroxide would have the greatest effect on the acidic solution. This was supported here as it had the highest average change in pH by far. On average, the pH value of the acidic solution increased by 12.5. This is significantly higher than the increase of the other solutions, which only increased around a pH of 4. The reason why potassium…

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    molecule substituent on the final product. This is where the conjugate base (HSO4-) of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) takes away a hydrogen from the water substituent. While the proton is being abstracted, the electrons from the bond are moved onto the oxygen in the substituent (See Figure 3). From looking at the reactant, reagents given to use in the reaction, and the product, most students picked out that the hydroxide group (OH) of the water molecule (H2O) would be added onto the styrene somehow to…

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    Nicole is the Ramen spectroscopy expert in her research group. She wondered whether she could use Ramen spectroscopy to study Copper 3 hydroxide vibrations. However, Copper 3 hydroxide is challenging to study due to its reactivity. She proposed the work to her advisor who rejected the idea because "it just doesn 't work". From there, she began diligent research in two parts (1) to prove to her advisor that Ramen Spectroscopy should, in theory, be able to measure the vibrations and (2) to map…

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    Titrating Vinegar with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Introduction Acids are anions that have at least one hydrogen cation tacked onto their molecular formulas. The Bronsted definition of an acid states that acid is a proton, H+, donor.3 Acids can fall into one of two categories: they can be strong or weak. Strong acids completely dissociate their H+ and weak acids only partially dissociate their H+.3 This means that a strong acid cannot return to its initial state once it undergoes a reaction. On the…

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    either sides of the C=C double bond: no alkyl groups, which implies that there are at least two hydrogen atoms bonded, one alkyl group, which implies only one hydrogen atom, or only alkyl groups, which implies that there are no hydrogen atoms. Thus, a more simpler definition is that the acid hydrogen is located on the carbon with the greatest number of hydrogens, while the hydroxyl group is placed at the carbon with the least number of hydrogens. Comparatively, the substituents on the ends of…

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    milliliter beaker, graduated cylinder, scale, vitamin c, phenolphthalein, methyl orange, deionized water and the following chemicals: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydrogen phthalate, hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate. When it comes to these chemicals, make sure to wear the general protective personal equipment and handle with caution because these chemicals can burn. (MSDS Solution Center) For week one, the students first had to prepare the sodium hydroxide and the hydrochloric acid. Both…

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