Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share pairs of electrons. Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which are gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most valence electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability (Chem wiki) Nonmetals will readily form covalent bonds with other nonmetals in order to obtain stability, and can form anywhere between one to three covalent bonds with other nonmetals depending on how many valence electrons they posses. The Octet Rule requires all atoms in a molecule to have 8 valence electrons either by sharing, losing or gaining electrons to become stable. (Video File) A single bond is when two electrons; one pair of electrons or they are shared between two atoms. A single line between the two atoms depicts it (BozeMan).
Metallic bonding is the force that holds atoms together in metallic substances. Such a solid consists of closely packed atoms. In most cases, the outermost electron shell of each of…
first substance to melt was indeed paraffin and the second was glucose, and then sucrose and finally salt. The results are supported by the basic knowledge of intermolecular forces regarding hydrogen bonds, London Dispersion forces, as well as Dipole-Dipole, and simple ionic bonds in the case of sodium chloride. The molecule with the least amount of these forces is the one with the weakest bonds,…
Ionic and Covalent bonds are the two different types of bonds that hold atoms together, each having their own characteristics. The distance and charge determines the type of bond the molecules have. These bonds occur because atoms strive to obtain the ideal valence of 8. Some atoms need to gain or lose electrons in order to achieve the ideal valence. In a covalent bond, the electrons are being pulled by two atoms that are both nonmetals. In other words, the two atoms are sharing electrons, but…
C-H bonds are considered nonpolar. This is because the electronegativity of C is 2.5 and the of H is 2.1, putting their electronegativity in the nonpolar range.
O-H bonds are more polar than N-H bonds. This is because the O-H bond is more electronegative because the electronegativity of O is 3.44 while the electronegativity of N is only 3.04.
I2(s) → I2(l) London Dispersion Forces
H2O(s) → H2O(l) London Dispersion Dipole-Dipole Hydrogen Bonding
NaI(s) → NaI(l) Ionic bonds
Energy profile of exothermic reaction Energy profile of endothermic reaction
A)Doc Brown (2016) B)Doc Brown (2016)
Thermodynamic reactions occur when there is a difference of energy during a chemical reaction.
There are two types;
Firstly, Exothermic reactions; This is when the initial reactants use less energy to break their existing bonds, than what energy was required to make the new bonds. The extra heat is spreads out into the surroundings (see above diagram A)
Topic 1: Chemical bonding
1.True or False: An Ion is when an atom gains or loses an electron.
2.What is a Cation? An ion with a (+) charge.
3.True or False: An Anion does not have a (-) charge.
4.What type of bonding transfers electrons? Ionic bonding
5.What are all the types of chemical bonds? Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic bonding.
6.What do you call an element that has different forms . Isotopes
7.Which type of bonding is the “strongest”? Ionic bonding
8.True or False: Ionic bonds are formed…
A coordination compound is the result of the reaction of lewis acid and lewis base in which neutral molecules called ligands make coordinate covalent bond with middle metal atom.
Ligands have one electron pair to donate to a metal atom and are called complex agents.
• Metal atoms are Lewis acids because they can accept pairs of electrons from Lewis bases.
• Within a ligand, the atom that is directly bonded to the metal atom/ion is called the donor atom.
• A coordinate…
bringing about two particles. These oppositely charged particles feel a fascination in each other, and this electrostatic fascination constitutes an ionic bond. Ionic holding happens between a nonmetal, which goes about as an electron acceptor, and a metal, which goes about as an electron contributor. Metals have few valence electrons, though nonmetals have more like eight valence electrons; to effectively fulfill the octet control, the nonmetal will acknowledge an electron gave by the metal.…
When two or more atoms chemically bond with each other, the resultant chemical structure is a molecule. The familiar water molecule, H2O, consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, which bond together to form water . Atoms can form molecules by donating, accepting, or sharing electrons to fill their outer shells. These processes go under Covalent or Ionic bonding. A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. It only happens between…
By the cause of branching the chain makes the molecule more compact, weakens the crystal lattice structure of the compound and thus drops the surface area. Hence, spreading forces reduces as there are fewer places for interaction, so decreasing the amount of energy required to break the intermolecular forces of attraction. 2-hexanone has the lowest point boiling point, as it much more branched and the third carbon has a functional group (double bond O), leading a high compacted molecule.…