Properties Of Water Essay

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The Earth is covered by about 70% of water and naturally, water is the only material that exists in three different states (solid, liquid and gas). This highlights that water is an important component as a chemical substance and this is due to its unique properties. Structure of water is one of the main features of water that allows it to carry out its job and that determines its functions and properties.
Structure of water
Water the molecule
In a water molecule, there is one oxygen that has six valence electrons in its outer shell and acts as the central atom. Two of these electrons is shared with the two hydrogen atoms which have one valance electron each in their outer shell giving a chemical formula of H2O. This shared pair helps to fill
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A solvent is a substance that can dissolve other substances. Water is a solvent because it is a polar molecule so it will attract other charged particles such as ions and other polar molecules such as glucose. Therefore chemical reactions can take place in solution since these chemicals dissolve in water. For example when you pour a salt (NaCl) into a cup of water, the molecule NaCl which is bonded ionically will separate into sodium ion (Na+) and chloride ion (Cl-). This is because the negatively charged oxygen atoms in the water molecules attract each of sodium ion and the positively charged hydrogen atoms attract on each of negatively charged chloride ion. Overall, the strength of many hydrogen bonds in the water molecules pulls the ions apart and keeps them dissolved. As well as that, hydrogen bonds also form between water molecules and polar molecules so water easily dissolves polar molecules. However, hydrogen bonds do no form between water molecules and non-polar molecules as they are hydrophobic and because hydrogen bonds have no interactions. The versatility of water as solvent also allows it to serve as the medium of transport for so many …show more content…
Water vapour has significant role in the as it is one of the most important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Water vapour absorbs the heat energy radiated from the Earth’s surface and keeps the planet warm.
Water auto-ionization
Water is an amphoteric substance. This means that water can act as an acid and a base. In pure water, about two molecules of water react to form a hydroxide ion and a hydronium ion. One molecule of water will act as an acid by donating a proton and another molecule of water will act as a base by accepting a proton. This reaction is an equilibrium reaction and reversible. Therefore in the reverse reaction, the hydroxide ion is the base and the hydronium ion is an acid.
Overall, all of these extraordinary properties comes from the unusual chemical structure and bonding of the water molecule. The big difference in electronegativity between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in every water molecule led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the water molecules. Water as being polar due to its uneven distribution of electrons meant that it could easily dissolve other polar substances which justifies the ability of it to work as in “universal solvent”. Water, without its unique structure these properties would not be possible, life could not be possible without these crucial properties of water, particularly the hydrogen

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