The Reactions Of Halocoalkane's Reaction With Halogenalkane

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In experiment 2, we observed that the reaction of halogenoalkanes with aqueous alkali and water which contains dissolved silver nitrate. Halogenoalkanes are alkanes which have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms such as fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I) which are the elements in group 7 in periodic table. Halogenoalkanes have the general formula, RX, whereby R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group and X is any of the halogen atom. Besides, halogenoalkanes can also be classified into three categories according to what is attached to the functional group such as primary, secondary and tertiary halogenoalkane.
In experiment 2(a), we use 2-chloro-2-methylpropane as a halogenoalkane to react with aqueous alkali which is potassium
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Pale yellow precipitate appears the fastest, following with pale cream precipitate and white precipitate takes the longest time to appear. This shows that 1-iodobutane is most reactive whereas 1-chlorobutane is least reactive. The order of reactivity reflects the strengths of the carbon-halogen bonds. The carbon-iodine bond is the weakest and the carbon-chlorine the strongest of the three bonds. In order for a halide ion to be produced, the carbon-halogen bond has to be broken. The weaker the bond, the easier that is. Carbon atom is slightly positive when it attached to the halogen. It is slightly positive because most of the halogens are more electronegative than carbon, and so pull electrons away from the carbon. Chlorine is most electronegative compare to bromine and iodine, hence it drags most of the electrons away from carbon to form a strongest bonding. The bond between iodine and carbon is the weakest as iodine is least electronegative. So, the bond energy of carbon-chlorine is the highest whereas the bond energy of carbon-iodine is the

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