Hydrogenation

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    Annotated Bibliography Li, Yuehui, Kathrin Junge, and Matthias Beller. “Improving the Efficiency Of The Hydrogenation of Carbonates and Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.” Chemcatchem 5.5 (2013): 1072-1074. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2016. This study states that the recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) cannot completely reduce the large concentrations of CO2 in the thermosphere, but it is indeed a functional process to produce modern chemicals. However, the process to hydrogenate CO2 with good selectivity and long term usage may require energy at high cost. Yuehui and Beller suggest that the intervention of more active and stable catalysts can lower the costs and increase the efficiency of the conversion of CO2 to methanol (CH3OH). Accordingly, they studied the…

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    polyunsaturated fats such as vegetable oils could be hardened and made into “partially hydrogenated fats,” transforming from its natural liquid state to a partially solid state. This process is known as hydrogenation. There are two types of fats that will be focused on in this paper: unsaturated and saturated fats. Saturated fats are lipids which have no carbon-carbon double bonds, while unsaturated fats are lipids that have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. A carbon-carbon double bond is…

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    Discussion Throughout this study, PHFs commonness in food items, product labelling using Nutrition Facts and the ingredient list and studies on health effects were all analyzed to see how prevalent PHFs are in a typical diet and how they affect health. Natural versus artificiel trans fats As previously mentioned, trans fats can come from two sources, naturally and artificially via the process of hydrogenation. Natural trans fat is formed in some grassland animals and small amounts can be found…

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    Prac 18 – Reaction Rate of Notongooglenium – Angus Dally Research Question: How does the presence of a Notongooglenium oxide catalyst effect the rate of hydrogenation of ethenol (vinyl alcohol)? Aim The aim of this experiment is to find the effect of the manganese oxide catalyst, a similar compound to Notongooglenium Oxide, on the rate of hydrogenation of ethenol (vinyl alcohol). Introduction Notongooglenium Notongooglenium is a newly discovered element with an atomic number of 24.5. Due to its…

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    factor for the exploitation of photochemical CO2 reduction in the search for sustainable energy sources. Instead of seeking to eliminate the use of an external reducing agent altogether, the alternative strategy makes the reducing agent recyclable. This has possible advantages over the direct combination of CO2 reduction and water oxidation. Instead of seeking to eliminate the external reductant this approach holds on to it but seeks to make it recyclable by hydrogenation. The vital role of the…

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    The processes are hydrogenation, interesterification and fractionation. Hydrogenation is a process of addition of hydrogen to a fat to obtain different degrees of hardness. The process is done in the presence of a nickel as a catalyst. The temperature used between 100oC and 200oC and at 15 atmospheres of pressure. The purpose of the hydrogenation is to increase the stability of oil’s solid fat content by reducing the level of unsaturation in oils. Hydrogenation processing conditions can be…

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    with the presence of the catalyst were raised from 60% to 150% at 500 ºC. Additionally, during 5 min the yield was raised to over 100%, which indicates that water may forms 50% of the gaseous products. Moreover, the results illustrates that Ru/CeO2 catalyst assists to improve hydrogenation reactions and inhibit dimers information such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Guan et al have explained that the reason for inhibition of dimers and PAHs is that phenol hydrogenation produces…

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    Trans-Fats

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    When looking at commercial alternatives to trans-fat use in processed foods, there are four factors to consider. These factors include: performance, availability, economics, and safety. Currently, there are many alternatives under development, such as: modified hydrogenation, genetically modified seeds, interesterification, fractionation and blending, butter and animal fat, natural saturated oils, natural unsaturated oils, and other fat substitutes. Partial hydrogenation of vegetable…

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    (melting/boiling point can also be used) and if possible any possible side products that may have been produced should also be identified. Introduction: A catalyst is a compound that increases the rate at which a reaction occurs and can be recovered at the end of the reaction unchanged. The Wilkinson’s catalyst is a homogenous catalyst, meaning that the reactants and the catalyst remain in the same phase for the reaction, and is the catalyst used for this lab. Wilkinson’s Catalyst is…

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    Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double bond between carbon atoms, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds. Most Trans fatty acids are produced by hydrogenation (breaking the double bond and adding hydrogen) of unsaturated fatty acids. This process will straighten the fatty acids, and making the product solid. Margarine and shortenings are produced by hydrogenation of vegetable oils, they are solid and high in Trans fats. 3. Monounsaturated fat – olive oil, peanut oil…

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