Catalysis

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    Enzyme Catalysis Lab

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    Enzyme catalysis can be a very confusing and long process, but in easier terms can just be explained by the fact that enzymes break down molecules into smaller pieces. The objective of this lab is to observe how quickly the enzyme catalase breaks down H2O2, and what long periods of contact between the two do to that process. We used seven different cups for seven different lengths of time, and in every cup we mixed 10 mL of 1.5% H2O2, 1 mL of distilled water, and 1 mL of catalase. We then waited the indicated period of times on the cups, which is our independent variable, to put the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in to the cup to stop the reaction. We then added KMnO4, drop by drop, to see how much hydrogen peroxide remained in the solution, which was our dependent variable. An enzyme is a catalyst, and it has two fundamental characteristics that it is known for. One of these things it that it can increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or destroyed in the reaction. The second is that they don’t alter the chemical equilibrium between the reactants and the products while they speed up the reaction. In enzyme catalysis, the substrate, which can also be referred to as the reactant, is transformed into the product of the reaction. This process can happen without an enzyme, but with the…

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    CHYMOTRYPSIN CATALYSIS Sarkis Hamalian ABSTRACT To examine the enzyme kinetics of chymotrypsin during the catalysis of the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA). Initially, observe the magnitude of the initial burst with regards to the enzyme concentration. Secondly, the analysis of the steady state deacylation rate with regards to the pH of the reaction mixture. Chymotrypsin catalysis is a process that proceeds with two steps, an initial fast step involving the covalent modification…

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    It is also called anabolism or biogenesis. It is a enzyme-catalyzed method in which substrates are transformed into complex products. In this process simple compounds change or convert into other compounds or they join together to form macromolecules. Example: In this process gluneogenesis is responsible for the production of glucose from non carbohydrate originator. Actually biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed process in which substrates are converted into complex compounds. 1. Biosynthesis…

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    Water Fog Lab

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    The applications of catalysis, range from refineries to pharmaceuticals and cut across many other sectors in the industry. The writers state that “over 90% of all chemical products have at least one catalytic step in their manufacture” (de Vries 2009) so as emphasize the importance of catalysis. Johannes G. de Vries and S. David Jackson, go on to list the procedure involved in the development of an industrial process. According to them, “very often a first phase is screening of catalysts, and…

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    Haldane Reaction Lab Report

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    HALDANE RELATIONSHIP AND ONE-WAY ENZYMES  INTRODUCTION: Most of the enzyme catalyzed biological reactions are reversible in nature. However, an enzyme may prefer to catalyze the reaction more efficiently in one direction over the other under given physiological concentrations of substrate or product (substrate in the reverse direction). An enzyme favouring a virtual unidirectional catalysis of an overall reversible reaction can’t escape the laws of thermodynamics. As a catalyst doesn’t change…

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    human body. Its main function is the cleaving of phosphate groups from mostly organic molecules, including proteins, nucleotides and even alkaloids, which makes it a hydrolase enzyme (Ellis, 2016). In biochemistry, a hydrolase enzyme is an enzyme that speeds up the hydrolysis of complex biomolecules like proteins, starch and fats (Horak, 2014). The addition and elimination of phosphate groups is an important process in biochemistry, as many enzymes are catalysed or have their activity controlled…

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    The experiment conducted was to observe the enzyme catalysis of Horseradish Peroxidase with different determining factors. In this experiment the horseradish peroxidase enzyme should have an optimal temperature of 35°C, should have an optimal pH of 6, and should catalyze rapidly with the substrate and enzyme concentration. We were able to observe that the enzyme reacts best with its optimal temperature of 35° C and optimal pH of 6. Moreover, when there’s a high the substrate concentration and a…

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    Albumin Synthesis

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    enzymes that use different approaches to achieve the catalysis to lower the activation rate. Which will then cause the process of the enzymes to occur more frequently than before the chemical reaction actually occurs. Enzymes tend to have different shape, yet can become specific of its formation. Which is known as conformations. Conformation is defined by the three-dimensional arrangement of side groups on a molecule which can freely rotate into different positions without breaking any bonds.…

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    between 4,7-dihydro-1H-indole 5 and α-amidosulfone 8 under identical reaction conditions, followed by oxidation with p-benzoquinone (Scheme 6). Finally, this method was successfully applied for the gram scale synthesis of 2- and 3-indolyl glycines 11 and 12 (Scheme 7). Scheme 5. Reactions were performed with 2 (0.18 mmol), 3 (0.15 equiv.), and (R)-1 (10 mol%) in toluene (3.0 mL) at 70 °C. The yield was determined after chromatographic purification, and the % ee was determined by HPLC…

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    Alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphorylation of phosphomonoesters (1). A kinetic reaction scheme of AP is presented in Figure 2. Figure 2: Kinetic reaction scheme of alkaline phosphatase (11). Under the hydrolysis reaction, free phosphate and an alcohol molecule are released from the active site. The rate-determining step of this reaction is pH dependent. Transphosphorylation has similar initiate steps as hydrolysis. However, phosphate cannot exit the active site,…

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