Catalysis

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    We were further interested to elaborate our catalytic conditions to the Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles with α-amido sulfone 8 as a precursor of N-Boc α-imino ethyl glyoxylate. The use of imino derivatives of glyoxylates as electrophiles in aza-Friedel–Crafts reaction afforded the corresponding 3-indolyl glycine derivatives, an important class of nonproteinogenic amino acids useful for synthetic intermediates and building blocks for natural products such as dragmacidins.[14] Although some…

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    reaction is pH dependent. Transphosphorylation has similar initiate steps as hydrolysis. However, phosphate cannot exit the active site, and it will transfer to an acceptor. This will form a new phosphomonoester molecule. Figure 3: Two metal ions catalysis mechanism of E. coli alkaline phosphatase (9). Zn(II) ions and essential amino acids are shown while Mg(II) ion is not displayed. Both Zn(II) ions seem to serve two primary functions. Zn1 facilitates the leaving of an alcohol group in the…

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    Enzyme Lab Report

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    transition state better than the substrate, which lowers the activation energy causing the speed of a reaction to accelerate. The enzyme combines with a substrate at the enzymes active site which creates the enzyme substrate complex. This is where catalysis takes place. When the reaction is complete, the complex dissociates. After the complex dissociates the enzyme is unchanged and as a result can move on to catalyze another reaction. Even though enzymes speed up…

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    can be reacted in our body spontaneously, the majority of reactions are catalyzed by specific enzymes. An enzyme can identify their unique substrate from thousands of reactants. According to the differences on the degree of specificity of enzyme catalysis, we divide its specificity into three categories: absolute specificity , relative specificity and stereospecificity. If a kind of enzyme can only catalyzed one substrate, it was subjected to absolute specificity, e.g. urease can only…

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    Enzymes are a biological catalyst. When a chemical reaction is taking place the enzyme works to lower the activation energy of a reaction. The activation energy is, the amount of energy that is required in order for a reaction to take place. Enzymes bind to reactant molecules. The enzymes hold these molecules in a way that makes the processes of the chemical bond-breaking and bond-forming take place more readily. A reaction can be either energy-releasing or energy-absorbing. Enzymes have no…

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    Chemical reactions are vital to living cells. Many chemical reactions take long periods of time to transpire. Enzymes serve as catalysts to speed up biochemical reactions in other substances. Each enzyme interacts with only one specific substrate (molecule) in an organism or a family of related molecules. Enzymes are not changed or used up by the reactions they catalyze, but their effectiveness can be influenced by environmental factors such as the pH level of an environment. All enzymes have an…

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    Acid Phosphatase Lab

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    Most enzymes are catalytic proteins made up of amino acids and are a key part of the breakdown and synthesis of virtually every biological catalysis reaction mechanism. The primary function of a catalytic enzyme is to increase the rate of reaction by helping the enzyme overcome the activation energy barrier without the reaction consuming or changing the enzyme. In enzymatic reactions, the substrate binds to the highly specific enzyme active site (the substrate-binding domain) and forms an…

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    Catalase Lab Report

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    Interpretation 1. Theoretical Lab Discussion This lab occurs due to enzyme kinetics, and the kinetics molecular theory. Enzyme kinetics is the study of chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes, and during the experiments, the reaction rate was measured by the effects of the varying conditions the substrate was in. Influence of Catalase Concentration The higher the concentration of the enzyme catalase, the function of the enzyme occurs better. As the number of disks increased, the…

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    Enzymes are known as catalysts that cause reactions to occur more rapidly by lowering the reaction’s activation energy. A reaction’s activation energy is known as the minimum amount of energy required to get a chemical reaction started1. In order for cells to efficiently manage thousands of different chemical reactions, they make use of biological catalysts. Without these catalysts, biological reactions would not be able to proceed at a proper rate necessary to maintain life. Most, but not all,…

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    Chymopapain Essay

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    1 enzyme Enzymes are biological catalysts. A protein compound Energy can reduce the carbon reaction. Enzymes to accelerate specific types of reactions. And the kind of substance that reacts. 2.1.1 catalysis of enzymes E is a catalyst (enzyme). S is a precursor called chop, nitrates and substance P is a product. E + S ---------------> E S ---------------> E + P. Complexometry 2.1.2 Factors affecting the enzyme. 1) What type of controlled…

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