Catalysis

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    Enzymes are required in almost all processes in a biological cell at significant rates. Enzymes are found in all tissues and fluids of the body. Intracellular enzymes catalyze the reactions of metabolic pathways. Plasma membrane enzymes regulate catalysis within cells in response to extracellular signals, and enzymes of the circulatory system are responsible for regulating the clotting of blood. Almost every significant life process is dependent on enzyme activity. Lastly, proteins in enzymes…

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    there was no consistency in the amount of liver solution each paper tab was soaked for. Despite, there could be some pathogens in the water; the use of distilled water or perhaps bottled water may have provided a slightly more accurate result as the catalysis of the hydrogen peroxide and liver solution could resemble the one in…

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    Potato Enzyme Lab

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    oxidase. Enzymes work by using substrates (reactor molecules) to increase the chances of a reaction taking place. Enzymes are not used or changed during a reaction, they simply bind with the substrate at the active site. This creates the place where catalysis actually occurs, called the enzyme-substrate complex (Freeman). Catechol Oxidase is the enzyme extracted from potatos. It is the enzyme responsible for the browning of fruit (Klabunde). PTU, phenylthiourea, is the inhibitor for catechol…

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    Enzymes are often large globular proteins and are able to hold substrates in specific orientations so they are able to react, the location where the substrate binds with the enzyme and reacts is called the active site and is the location where the catalysis occurs (Freeman et al. 2017). Enzymes activity is often related to the optimal environment for them in respect to temperature and pH, meaning that each enzyme will have an optimal temperature/pH where it will preform at its peak relating to…

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    Peroxidase Experiment

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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes are catalysts, speeding up of chemical reactions, of biological systems by lowering the activation energy (Transitioned from the AP Biology Lab Manual). In addition, in order to determine the rate of an enzymatic reaction, one must measure a change in the amount of at least one specific substrate or product over time. We were curious about determining the effects of pH and heat on enzymatic activity because these are factors that usually affect the shape of an enzyme. We…

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    Toothpickase Lab Report

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    Toothpickase Activity Lab Report By: Rohan Shah Michael Chan, Bravo Zayas Kimonas Valais, Ronan Murphy, Matthew Sultana, Orlando Santiago Teacher: Mrs. Istrico November 3rd, 2014 A Period Abstract: This report is a demonstration of different conditions an enzyme is exposed to and how the enzyme reacts in response. The conditions the enzyme was exposed to include: ideal conditions, the presence of a competitive substrate, denaturation for a short amount of time, and complete…

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    Energy needed for life comes from the breaking or forming of chemical bonds during chemical reactions. Energy is released in the formation of bonds and energy is also released when the bonds are broken, but in both energy is required to start the chemical reaction. This energy needed to start a chemical reaction, activation energy, comes from enzymes. Enzymes (almost always proteins) are organic catalysts that help speed up the rate of reactions and allow the reactants to get the most out of the…

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    Does this follow a pattern you anticipated? A change in pH not only affects the shape of an enzyme but it also changes the shape or charge properties of the substrate so that either the substrate cannot bind to the active site or it cannot undergo catalysis. If the enzymes pH is at an optimum level then the enzyme will work more efficiently so the rate of reaction will increase now as the pH changes away from the optimum the rate will decrease. At what temperature is the rate of enzyme activity…

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    Trypsin Lab Report

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    INTRODUCTION Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, important for the digestion of proteins. Enzymes are biological catalysts for metabolic process in cells. A catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a reaction. Enzymes act as catalysts for chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes are large proteins that are not consumed or changed in a chemical reaction. They are highly specific to the substrate - the substance an enzyme acts on - they act upon. When an enzyme is available with an empty…

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    As macromolecular machines, enzymes conduct their designated work in the confined and crowded spaces inside living cells. How does a protein work in such a condition? Functions of proteins are strongly dependent on their structural stability and dynamics while the (macro) molecular interactions are arguably affected by the complexity and diversity of their environments. To date, two interrelated cellular conditions — ‘macromolecular crowding’ resulted from the effect of volume exclusion by…

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