Fatty Acid Synthesis: The Catalysis Process Of Biosynthesis

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It is also called anabolism or biogenesis. It is a enzyme-catalyzed method in which substrates are transformed into complex products. In this process simple compounds change or convert into other compounds or they join together to form macromolecules.
Example:
In this process gluneogenesis is responsible for the production of glucose from non carbohydrate originator.
Actually biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed process in which substrates are converted into complex compounds.
1. Biosynthesis of fatty acids:
Synthesis of fatty acids take place in the crystal. The enzymes of fatty acid synthesis are wrapped in a complex called fatty acid synthase(FAS). At a time 2 carbons are synthesized by fatty acid molecule.Palmitic acid is the product
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in mammals Fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by entity domains of a very large polypeptide that includes an acyl carrier protein domain.
Development of the mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase actually has involved gene fusion
• Biosynthesis of fatty acid in plants:
Plants can make enormous amount of fatty acids only some are common and major components. Long chain fatty acids are formed from small precursors which are obtained from photosynthetic. Some plants can produce extraordinary fatty acids in their seeds oil many of which are used in industrial applications.
For example epoxy fatty acids , cyclopropane fatty acids, conjugated unsaturated fatty acids.
• Biosynthesis of fatty acids in humans:
Synthesis of fatty acids is important , constitution of fatty acid in diet is essential as it is associated with major diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a vital role in cell membrane. They are also transitional in the formation of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids,which intercede fever, inflammation, neurotransmitter and blood pressure.

2. Biosynthesis of amino
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• Trios-phosphate which is produced in Calvin cycle is used to form sucrose or starch. Chloroplast form starch.
Complex Carbohydrates are made up of two main components:
• Amylose
• Amylopectin

• Amylose:
It is straight component of starch. It include alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds. Molecular weight is not more than 0.5 million. It can form coils which trap iodine and change into blue.
• Amylopectin:
It is branched chain . It includes alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds and alpha 1,6 glycosidic bonds. Molecular weight is 50-500 million. Coiling is limited and when iodine is added purplish-red color is appeared.
• Biosynthesis of carbohydrates in human body:
Carbohydrates provide energy to all cells of the body. Glucose is most important source of energy in human body red blood cells produce cellular energy from glucose. 70 percent glucose which enter into body from digestion is redistributed to blood and other tissues of the body. Sun light energy is used in process of photosynthesis.
Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates are single or double sugars example is table sugar. Complex carbohydrates include three or more sugars

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